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The "generic masculine" and its effect on scholarship - examples:

Quarrels and disputes are as old as mankind, or older. Two men may each claim to possess some desirable object or property, or a man may complain at another's behavior and demand compensation or atonement. The most primitive method of settling a dispute is for one of the disputants to overpower the other by force or intimidation. The civilized method is to refer the dispute to a third party, whose decision both disputants are required to accept. In some cases they do this willingly: both agree to submit the dispute to a judge (or judges) and undertake to accept his decision. In other cases one of the disputants is unwilling: he wishes to stay as he is, or to keep what he has, and only under compulsion will he submit to judgment. (From Douglas MacDowell, The Law in Classical Athens, 1978)

. . . If we could ask an ancient Greek what distinguished him from the barbarian, he would not, I fancy, put the triumphs of the Greek mind first, even though he was conscious that he set about most things in a more intelligent way. (Demosthenes, for example, rating his fellow-citizens for their spineless policy towards Philip of Macedon, says, "You are no better than a barbarian trying to box. Hit him in one spot, and his hands fly there; hit him somewhere else, and his hands go there.") Nor would he think first of the temples, statues and plays which we so justly admire. He would say, and in fact did say, "The barbarians are slaves; we Hellenes are free men." (From H. D. F. Kitto, The Greeks, 1951)

The feminine as "marked category": Compare the following with the first selection on this page. How has the meaning changed?

Quarrels and disputes are as old as womankind, or older. Two women may each claim to possess some desirable object or property, or a woman may complain at another's behavior and demand compensation or atonement. The most primitive method of settling a dispute is for one of the disputants to overpower the other by force or intimidation. The civilized method is to refer the dispute to a third party, whose decision both disputants are required to acept. In some cases they do this willingly: both agree to submit the dispute to a judge (or judges) and undertake to accept her decision. In other cases one of the disputants is unwilling: she wishes to stay as she is, or to keep what she has, and only under compulsion will she submit to judgment.

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