Translation

Tagging the translation of the text into English or another (usually modern) language.

At the most general level, it is worth saying that almost anything that can be tagged in the transcribed text division of an epigraphic or papyrological edition can in principle also be tagged in the translation division. In practice, however, far less markup will appear in most translations, in some cases almost none at all.

Features of the division

The translation or translations should be contained in a division of the body of the TEI file, with a type attribute identifying it as a translation division.

<div type="translation">
 <p>...</p>
</div>

The translation might be subcategorized in some way. For instance, an edition might contain more than one translation into a single language, according to a particular typology; the translation divs could therefore bear subtype attributes with values such as "literal", "poetic", "free" and so forth. Perhaps more commonly, an edition might encode translations in more than one modern language, which would then be differentiated by means of xml:lang attributes.

<div type="translationxml:lang="en">
 <p>In the year 6960, in the 13th (or 10th) indiction. With the Lord's help, the wall was completed.
   Christ, come as a Helper, to ... Kosta. In the year 6960.</p>
</div>
<div type="translationxml:lang="ru">
 <p>6960, в 13-й (или: 10-й) индикт (?). С [Божьей] помощью окончена стена.
   Приди Помощником, Христе, к ... Косте. В 6960 году.</p>
</div>

Separate translations might be encoded for different texts or parts of the text in an edition, perhaps most appropriately on a <div type="textpart"> within the translation division, rather than on the top-level division. The correspondence between parts of the transcription and of the translation might be recorded in an attribute such as n (giving the number or letter of the corresponding section), or more formally, corresp, linking directly to the xml:id of a division containing the corresponding text.

Other means of differentiating multiple translations, using the various TEI attributes on div are imaginable.

Features of the translated text

As noted above, the translation is likely to require far fewer features of markup than the transcribed text itself. The features most commonly tagged in translations include:

  • Restored text: (<supplied reason="lost">) to tag restored text (most often entire words or phrases, since the translation will seldom align with the original text more finely than this);
  • Editor makes "subaudible" word manifest: (<supplied reason="subaudible">) to tag words or phrases added by way of clarification in the translation that were not present in the transcription;
  • Editor's note: (<note>) to tag the editor's words that are not part of the translation per se, such as "i.e. 212 CE", or "unclear".
  • Abbreviation fully expanded: (expan, ex) most often used to indicate names, if at all, abbreviated in the original;
  • Lost characters (gap) to indicate significant spans of lacuna in the original text.

Responsibility for this section

  1. Gabriel Bodard, author
Date: 2014-05-06