Introduction to Structured Markup

Last changed: April 11, 2011    

Marking up texts with SGML focuses on content, not on display. This can best be understood by contrasting SGML markup with the more familiar HTML markup.

First, a small, easy example: Pindar's fourteenth Olympian. To see the HTML displayed, follow this link. Here's the HTML source code, with some notes.

<title>Olympian Fourteen</title>

<body bgcolor=white link=blue vlink=purple alink=green>  These commands control the appearance
<center><font size=+1 color=green>Olympian XIV</font><br>
<font color=green>For Asopichos of Orchomenos, winner in the foot-race<font><br></center>

<center><b>I</b></center>  The Roman numeral indicates the strophe
The waters of Kaphisos belong<br>  Typographical line-ends are marked <br>
To the place of fine horses where you dwell,<br>
Queens of song, in sparkling Orchomenos,<br>
Graces, who watch<br>
Over the ancient race of the Minyans,<br>
[5] Hear, when I pray.  By your help<br>  The line number looks like part of the text
All sweet and delightful things<br>
Belong to men;  if anyone<br>
Is wise or lovely or famous.<br>
For without the holy Graces<br>
Not even the Gods rule dances or feasts.<br>
[10] They dispose all that is done in Heaven;<br>
Their thrones are set<br>
At the side of Pythian Apollo, the golden-bowed,<br>
And they worship the everlasting glory<br>
Of the Father on Olympos.<br>
<center><b>II</b></center>  The blank lines and Roman numeral mark the antistrophe
O Lady Glory, and Mirth, delighting in music,<br>
Children of the most mighty of Gods,<br>
[15] Listen now, and Health, lover of the dance,<br>
Look on the company lightly treading after friendly fortune.<br>
I have come with a song for Asopichos<br>
In the Lydian style with careful art;<br>
For through you the Minyan race<br>
[20] Is victorious at Olympia.<br>
    Go now, Echo, to the black walls<br>
Of Persephona's house<br>
And bring the fine news to his father;<br>
See Kleodamos and tell him<br>
How his son<br>
In the famous valleys of Pytho<br>
Has crowned his young hair<br>
With the wings of a glorious triumph.<br>


Some notes supplied by the translator
Olympian XIV was probably composed in 488 BC to be sung on the victor's
return to his native Orchomenos, where the Graces - Aglaia (Glory),
Euphrosyna (mirth), and Thalia (Health) - had a prominent place in 
local cult.
4 Minyas was the legendary founder of Orchomenos;  hence its inhabitants
are Minyans.
20ff.  The victor's father, Kleodamos, has recently died, but Pindar
assumes that he is able to hear of his son's success.

And here's the SGML.
<!doctype TEI.2 PUBLIC "-//TEI P3//DTD Main DTD Driver File//EN" [
<!ENTITY % PersVerse PUBLIC "-//Perseus//DTD Perseus Verse//EN">
<teiheader>                        Header information giving meta-data about the text
      <title>Olympian XIV, For Asopichos of Orchomenos, winner in the foot-race</title>
      <contributor>C. M. Bowra</contributor>
      <edition>SGML version, markup prototype, September 1999</edition>
      <respstmt><name>Anne Mahoney</name><resp>markup</resp></respstmt>
      <bibl>From Bowra's own OCT edition</bibl>
     <change><date>31 August 1999</date>
          <respstmt><name>Anne Mahoney</name><resp>markup</resp><item>initial markup</item>
     <change><date>1 September 1999</date>
          <respstmt><name>Anne Mahoney</name><resp>markup</resp><item>organize with div tags</item>


<div1 type=poem>
<div2 type=strophe>     The strophe and antistrophe are labelled
<l>The waters of Kaphisos belong   The <l> marks verse lines, not printed lines
<l>To the place of fine horses where you dwell,
<l>Queens of song, in sparkling Orchomenos,
<l>Graces, who watch
<l>Over the ancient race of the Minyans,
     <note place=foot resp=CMB anchored=yes>   The note goes next to what it annotates
          Minyas was the legendary founder of Orchomenos;  hence 
          its inhabitants are Minyans.
<l n=5>Hear, when I pray.  By your help    The line number is not part of the text
<l>All sweet and delightful things
<l>Belong to men;  if anyone
<l>Is wise or lovely or famous.
<l>For without the holy Graces
<l>Not even the Gods rule dances or feasts.
<l n=10>They dispose all that is done in Heaven;
<l>Their thrones are set
<l>At the side of Pythian Apollo, the golden-bowed,
<l>And they worship the everlasting glory
<l>Of the Father on Olympos.
<div2 type=antistrophe>  The antistrophe says "antistrophe," not just "II"
<l>O Lady Glory, and Mirth, delighting in music,
<l>Children of the most mighty of Gods,
<l n=15>Listen now, and Health, lover of the dance,
<l>Look on the company lightly treading after friendly fortune.
<l>I have come with a song for Asopichos
<l>In the Lydian style with careful art;
<l>For through you the Minyan race
<l n=20>Is victorious at Olympia.
     <note place=foot resp=CMB anchored=yes>
          The victor's father, Kleodamos, has recently died, but
          Pindar assumes that he is able to hear of his son's success.
<l rend=indent>Go now, Echo, to the black walls
<l>Of Persephona's house
<l>And bring the fine news to his father;
<l>See Kleodamos and tell him
<l>How his son
<l>In the famous valleys of Pytho
<l>Has crowned his young hair
<l>With the wings of a glorious triumph.

<note place=foot resp=CMB anchored=no>
Olympian XIV was probably composed in 488 BC to be sung on the victor's
return to his native Orchomenos, where the Graces - Aglaia (Glory),
Euphrosyna (mirth), and Thalia (Health) - had a prominent place in 
local cult.


Although the SGML code appears more verbose, it's also more informative. Note how it includes information about the original text and the markup, in the header at the beginning. In addition, the strophe and antistrophe are marked in a machine-readable way. The line numbers, which are simply stuck into the text in the HTML version, are clearly marked as numbers (see the <l n=5> markings), so a program could read those, too. The notes appear next to what they annotate, and are marked as coming from the translator or the markup editor.

Commentaries are particularly good for SGML encoding, because SGML retains more information than simply how the text is to appear. Here's a sample of a commentary on the same poem of Pindar, showing how it relates to the text.

<!doctype TEI.2 PUBLIC "-//TEI P3//DTD Main DTD Driver File//EN" [
<!ENTITY % PersProse PUBLIC "-//Perseus//DTD Perseus Prose//EN">
<teiheader type=text>     Header information describing the text
      <title>Gildersleeve's Commentary on Olympian 14</title>
      <author>Basil L. Gildersleeve</author>
      <edition>SGML version, markup prototype, September 1999</edition>
      <respstmt><name>Anne Mahoney</name><resp>markup</respstmt>
      <step refunit= "poem" delim="." from="DESCENDANT (1 DIV1 N %1)" to="DITTO">
      <step refunit= "line" from="DESCENDANT (1 DIV3 N %2)" to="DITTO">
	<language id=greek>Greek</language>
	<language id=la>Latin</language>
	<date>1 September 1999</date><respstmt>
	  <name>Anne Mahoney</name><resp>markup</resp></respstmt>
	<item>initial markup</item>

<div1 type=poem n=PO14>  Main divisions are poems, just as in the translation
<head>Olympia XIV</head>
<div2 type=intro n=PO14i>   Introductory notes on the poem
<P><name type=place rend=caps>Orchomenos</name>, 
in <name type=place>Boeotia</name>, was a very ancient city, 
the home of the famous <name type=person>Minyai</name> 
<bibl n="Pind. O. 14.4">(v. 4)</bibl>,     Reference to the poem
where the <name type=god>Charites</name> were worshipped
from the earliest times. The poem, as we have it, contains
scarcely more than an invocation and exaltation of the 
<name type=god>Charites</name>, and an announcement 
of the Olympian victory of the boy <name type=person>Asopichos</name>, 
who won the single-dash foot-race, 
<date value="476 BC">Ol. 76 (476 B.C.)</date>. This
victory <name type=god>Echo</name> is bidden report 
to the father of <name type=person>Asopichos</name>, who is
now in the abode of <name type=god>Persephone</name>. While the poem closes well,
the massive structure of the strophe gives the piece the effect of a torso.

<P>The song is supposed to have been sung in a procession
(<quote lang=greek>kou=fa bibw=nta</quote>,   Greek expressed in Beta-code
<bibl n="Pind. O. 14.17">v. 17</bibl>) to the 
temple of the <name type=god>Charites</name> for the 
dedication of the wreath.

<P>The metres are logaoedic. The mood is said by the poet
himself to be Lydian <bibl n="Pind. O. 14.17">(v. 17)</bibl>. The 
soft Lydian measure was especially suited to boys' voices 
(<cit><quote lang=greek>pre/pei th=| tw=n 
pai/dwn h(liki/a|</quote> <bibl n="Aristot. Pol. 1342b32">Aristot. 
Pol., end, p. 1342b32</bibl></cit>), 
and was in favorite use for prayers and plaints, and consequently 
well adapted to the close of the poem, in which the dead father 
of the victor is mentioned.

<P>Poets have admired the ode greatly--while editors have 
complained of its difficulties.

The strophe is marked and labelled, as in the translation
<div2 type=strophe n=1><head><foreign lang=greek>*str. a/</foreign>.</head>
<div3 type=commLine n=1 id=PO14l1>  Notes on line 1
<p>--1. <lemma lang=greek>*kafisi/wn</lemma>: 
On this <name type=place>Kephisos</name>, see 
<bibl n="Strab 405">Strabo 405. 407</bibl>.  It was 
a common river-name, and is found in <name type=place>Attika</name>, 
<name type=place>Salamis</name>, <name type=place>Sikyon</name>, 
<name type=place>Skyros</name>, <name type=place>Argolis</name>.

<p>--<lemma lang=greek>laxoi=sai ai(/te</lemma>: <bibl>
Bergk</bibl> writes <quote lang=greek>tai/te</quote> for
<quote lang=greek>ai(/te</quote> of the MSS., which <bibl>Mommsen</bibl> 
defends, <foreign lang=greek>-ai</foreign> 
in <foreign lang=greek>laxoi=sai</foreign> being shortened, 
as often in dactylic poetry. The Pindaric passages cited by Mommsen 
(<bibl n="Pind. P. 5.72">P. 5, 72</bibl>,    Reference to another work of Pindar's
and <bibl n="Pind. P.8.96">8, 96</bibl>) 
have been emended, the latter with good warrant. <bibl>Böckh</bibl> 
reads <quote lang=greek>laxoi=san</quote>. On the
lot (<foreign lang=greek>la/xos</foreign>), comp. <bibl n="Pind. O.7.58">O. 7, 58</bibl>.

<p>--<lemma lang=greek>kalli/pwlon</lemma>: On account of 
the pasturage. Comp. the praise of the <name type=place>Attic Kephisos</name> in 
<cit><bibl n="Soph. OC 668">Sophokles, O. C. 668</bibl>  Reference to another classical author
<quote lang=greek>eu)i/ppou, ce/ne</quote></cit>, 
<foreign lang=greek>kte(</foreign>., and 
<cit><bibl n="Soph. OC 677">OC 677</bibl> 
<quote lang=greek>eu)/ippon, eu)/pwlon</quote></cit>.

<div3 type=commLine n=3 id=PO14l3>
<p>--3. <lemma lang=greek>lipara=s</lemma>, l. 3, is 
used of <name type=place>Thebes</name>, <bibl n="Pind. P.2.3">P. 2, 3</bibl>. 
Elsewhere of <name type=place>Athens</name>, <bibl n="Pind. N.4.17">N. 4, 17</bibl>; 
<bibl n="Pind. I.2.20">I. 2, 20</bibl>; and in the famous 
<cit><bibl>fragment IV. 4 </bibl> 
<quote lang=greek><lg type=lyric><l>w)= tai\ liparai\ kai\ i)oste/fanoi kai\ a)oi/dimoi, 
<l>*(ella/dos e)/reisma, kleinai\ *)aqa=nai, daimo/nion ptoli/eqron</lg></quote></cit>.

<div3 type=commLine n=4 id=PO14l4>
<p>--4. <lemma lang=greek>*)orxomenou=</lemma>: 
<bibl>Mommsen</bibl> has <quote lang=greek>*)erxomenou=</quote>, the
local form, after Cavedoni. The change is advocated by <bibl>van Herwerden</bibl> also.

<p>--<lemma lang=greek>*minua=n</lemma>: <name type=person>Minyas</name> was the son 
of <name type=god>Poseidon</name> and <name type=person>Kallirrhoë</name>.  
His descendants, the <name type=person>Minyans</name>, were the Vikings of Greek legend.

<div3 type=commLine n=5 id=PO14l5>
<p>--5. <lemma lang=greek>ta/ te terpna\ kai\ | ta\ gluke/</lemma>
(<foreign lang=greek>a</foreign>): <foreign lang=greek>te ... kai/</foreign> is
usually employed to couple opposites or complements, as <bibl>Mommsen</bibl> notes. 
If <foreign lang=greek>to\ terpno/n</foreign> is 
the transient diversion (<bibl>Schmidt, Synonym.</bibl>), and 
<foreign lang=greek>to\ gluku/</foreign> the immanent sweetness, there would be
enough difference to justify the combination.

<div3 type=commLine n=6 id=PO14l6>
<p>--6. <lemma lang=greek>a)/netai</lemma>: 
So <bibl>Kayser</bibl> for <quote lang=greek>gi/netai</quote>.

<p>--<lemma lang=greek>brotoi=s</lemma>: "For," only incidentally "by." The
Schol. correctly <quote lang=greek>gi/netai kai\ sumbai/nei</quote>.

<div3 type=commLine n=7 id=PO14l7>
<p>--7. <lemma lang=greek>sofo/s</lemma>: "Skilled in song."
See <bibl n="Pind. O.1.9">O. 1, 9. 116</bibl>.

<p>--<lemma lang=greek>a)glao/s</lemma>: Of victory, which is often represented as
sheen (comp. <cit><bibl n="Pind. O. 13.5">>O. 13, 5</bibl> 
<quote lang=greek>a)glao/kouron</quote></cit>, 
<cit><bibl n="Pind. O.13.14">O. 13,14</bibl> <quote lang=greek>a)glai+/an</quote></cit>), 
and <name type=god>Aglaïa</name> is one of the Graces.

<div3 type=commLine n=8 id=PO14l8>
<p>--8. <lemma lang=greek>a(gna=n</lemma>: So Kayser, to save the metre; the MSS.
<quote lang=greek>semna=n</quote>: cf. <cit><bibl>fr. VI. 1</bibl> 
<quote lang=greek>semna=n *xari/twn me/lhma terpno/n</quote></cit>, 
and <cit><bibl n="Eur. Hel. 134">Eur. Hel. 134</bibl> 
<quote lang=greek>semnai\ *xa/rites</quote></cit>. 
For <foreign lang=greek>a(gna=n</foreign>, see 
<cit><bibl>Sappho, fr. 65 (Bgk.)</bibl> <quote lang=greek>a)/gnai *xa/rites</quote></cit>, 
and <bibl>Alkaios, fr. 62 (Bgk.)</bibl>.

<p>--<lemma lang=greek>*xari/twn a)/ter</lemma>: See <bibl n="Pind. P.2.42">P. 2, 42</bibl>.

<div3 type=commLine n=9 id=PO14l9>
<p>--9.<lemma lang=greek>ou)de\ ... koirane/oisin x</lemma>. 
= <foreign lang=greek>ou)de\ koirane/oisin ou)/te xorou\s ou)/te dai=tas</foreign>.
The first neg. omitted. See <bibl n="Pind. O.11.17">O. 11 (10), 17</bibl>. 
<quote lang=greek>k</quote>. = <foreign lang=greek>diakosmou=si</foreign>
(Schol.), "consent to be the lords" (<foreign lang=greek>kosmh/tores</foreign>).

<p>--<lemma lang=greek>tami/ai</lemma>:  <bibl>Mommsen</bibl> inclines to 
<foreign lang=greek>ta/miai</foreign>, 
a theoretical fem. form. Cf. <cit><bibl n="Pind. O.13.7">O. 13, 7</bibl> 
<quote lang=greek>*di/ka kai\ o(mo/trofos *ei)rh/na tami/ai plou/tou</quote></cit>, 
and <cit><bibl n="Eur. Med. 1415">Eur. Med. 1415</bibl> <quote lang=greek>pollw=n tami/as 
*zeu\s e)n *)olu/mpw|</quote></cit>. Even in prose, 
<cit><bibl n="Isoc. 11.13">Isok. 11, 13</bibl> 
<quote lang=greek>tw=n o)/mbrwn kai\ tw=n au)xmw=n o( *zeu\s tami/as e)sti/n</quote></cit>.

<div3 type=commLine n=10 id=PO14l10>
<p>--10. <lemma lang=greek>qe/menai ... qro/nous</lemma>:  <bibl>Leop. Schmidt</bibl> 
suspects the statement of the Schol. that the thrones of the <name type=god>Muses</name> 
were placed at the right hand of <name type=god>Apollo</name> in <name type=place>Delphi</name>.

<div3 type=commLine n=12 id=PO14l12>
<p>--12. <lemma lang=greek>a)e/naon ... tima/n</lemma>: 
<foreign lang=greek>a)</foreign>. is more poetic as a
proleptic adj. than as an adverb. <quote lang=greek>*kafi/sia u(/data</quote> calls up the
image of <foreign lang=greek>u(/data a)ena/onta</foreign>. The honor 
of <name type=god>Zeus</name> is "as a river."

<div2 type=antistrophe n=1>
<P><foreign lang=greek>*str. b/</foreign>.

<div3 type=commLine n=13 id=PO14l13>
<p>--13. <lemma lang=greek>po/tni) *)aglai+/a</lemma>: <name type=god>Aglaïa</name> was 
especially the mistress of victory (see <bibl n="Pind. O.14.7">v. 7</bibl>), 
as <name type=god>Thaleia</name> presided especially over feasts 
(<foreign lang=greek>kw=moi</foreign>).  The three <name type=god>Graces</name> 
were first fixed by <cit><bibl n="Hes. Th. 909">Hesiod, Theog. 909</bibl> 
<quote lang=greek>*)aglai+/hn te kai\ *eu)frosu/nhn *qali/hn t) e)rateinh/n</quote></cit>.

<div3 type=commLine n=14 id=PO14l14>
<p>--14.  <lemma lang=greek>filhsi/molpe ... e)rasi/molpe</lemma>: As one might shift from 
<foreign lang=greek>filei=n</foreign> to
<foreign lang=greek>e)ra=n</foreign>, the weaker to the stronger. Toying with synonyms was
not impossible for <name type=person reg=Pindar>P</name>.

<p>--<quote lang=greek>qew=n krati/stou</quote>:  <name type=god>Zeus</name> was 
the father, <name type=god>Eurynome</name>, an Okeanid, the 
mother, acc. to <bibl n="Hes. Th. 907">Hesiod (Theog. 907)</bibl>.

<div3 type=commLine n=15 id=PO14l15>
<p>--15. <lemma lang=greek>e)pakooi=te nu=n</lemma>: 
So <bibl>Bergk</bibl> and <bibl>Mommsen</bibl> (for 
<foreign lang=greek>e)pa/kooi nu=n</foreign> of
the MSS.) from a supposed <foreign lang=greek>e)phkoe/w</foreign>, not an attractive formation.
Other conjectures are: <foreign lang=greek>e)pa/kooi tanu=n</foreign>, 
<bibl>Herm.</bibl>, <bibl>Dissen</bibl>, but we
must have imperative or optative; <foreign lang=greek>e)pa/koos geneu=</foreign>, 
<bibl>Herm.</bibl>, <bibl>Böckh</bibl>,

<div3 type=commLine n=17 id=PO14l17>
<p>--17. <lemma lang=greek>kou=fa bibw=nta</lemma>:  
So <cit><bibl n="Hom. Il. 13.158">Hom. Il. 13, 158</bibl> <quote lang=greek>kou=fa
posi\ probiba/s</quote></cit>.

<p>--<lemma lang=greek>*)asw/pixon</lemma>: Diminutive from <foreign lang=greek>*)aswpo/s</foreign>.

<p>--<lemma lang=greek>*ludw=| ... e)n tro/pw|</lemma>:  <bibl>Mommsen</bibl> recognizes a kind 
of <foreign lang=greek>e(\n dia\ duoi=n</foreign>, to
which figure P., indeed, comes nearer than does any other Greek
poet, but <foreign lang=greek>tro/pw|</foreign> is "the tune," 
and <foreign lang=greek>mele/tais</foreign> is the verse. 
<quote>"With Lydian tune and meditated lays."</quote> <foreign lang=greek>e)n</foreign>, 
of the flute, <bibl n="Pind. O.5.19">O. 5, 19</bibl>; 
<bibl n="Pind. O.7.12">7, 12</bibl>; <bibl>N. 3, 79</bibl>; of the cithern, 
<bibl n="Pind. P.2.69">P. 2, 69</bibl>; <bibl n="Pind. I.4.27">I. 4 (5), 27</bibl>.

<div3 type=commLine n=18 id=PO14l18>
<p>--18. <lemma lang=greek>e)/molon</lemma>:  
See <cit><bibl n="Pind. O.7.13">O. 7, 13</bibl>: <quote lang=greek>kate/ban</quote></cit>.

<div3 type=commLine n=19 id=PO14l19>
<p>--19. <lemma lang=greek>*minu/eia:</lemma> Aeolic accentuation, as in
<foreign lang=greek>*ku/kneia</foreign>, <bibl n="Pind. O.10.17">O. 10 (11), 17</bibl>.  
<name type=place>Orchomenos</name> 
is so called to distinguish it from the Arkadian city of the same name.

<div3 type=commLine n=20 id=PO14l20>
<p>--20. <lemma lang=greek>seu= ve/kati</lemma>: <name type=god>Thaleia</name>,
not because she is <foreign lang=greek>korufai/a</foreign> generally, but because this is 
the <foreign lang=greek>kw=mos</foreign>, of which she has special charge.

<div3 type=commLine n=21 id=PO14l21>
<p>--21. <lemma lang=greek>e)lqe/, vaxoi=</lemma>:  <bibl>Ahrens</bibl>
writes <foreign lang=greek>e)/luq)</foreign>, <foreign lang=la>metri causa</foreign>.  With 
the passage comp. <bibl n="Pind. O.8.81">O. 8, 81</bibl>, where 
<quote lang=greek><name type=person>*)alleli/a</name></quote>, a 
daughter of <name type=god>Hermes</name>, is supposed to discharge the same office.  
<name type=god>Echo</name> belongs to the Orchomenian sphere, by reason 
of her passion for <name type=person>Narkissos</name>, 
son of <name type=person>Kephisos</name>.

<div3 type=commLine n=22 id=PO14l22>
<p>--22.  <lemma lang=greek>*kleo/damon</lemma>: Father of 
<name type=person>Asopichos</name>.

<p>--<lemma lang=greek>o)/fr) i)doi=s</lemma>(<foreign lang=greek>a</foreign>): 
<foreign lang=greek>v</foreign> lost.

<p>--<lemma lang=greek>ui(o\n ... o(/ti</lemma>: 
Prolepsis for <foreign lang=greek>o(/ti ... ui(o/s</foreign>. 
Comp. <bibl n="Pind. P.9.121">P. 9, 121</bibl>.

<div3 type=commLine n=23& id=PO14l23gt;
<p>--23. <lemma lang=greek>ko/lpois par) eu)do/cois</lemma>: 
So Bergk for <foreign lang=greek>eu)do/coio</foreign>. 
On <foreign lang=greek>para/</foreign>, see <bibl n="Pind. O.1.20">O. 1, 20</bibl>.

<div3 type=commLine n=24 id=PO14l24>
<p>--24. <lemma lang=greek>e)stefa/nwse</lemma>: 
The middle (<bibl n="Pind. O.7.15">O. 7, 15</bibl>), though natural, is not necessary.
<foreign lang=greek>xai/tan</foreign> represents <foreign lang=greek>e(\ au)to/n</foreign>. 
So <cit><bibl n="Pind. P.10.40">P. 10, 40</bibl> <quote lang=greek>ko/mas a)nadh/santes</quote></cit>.

<p>--<lemma lang=greek>pteroi=si:</lemma>  Cf. <cit><bibl n="Pind. P.9.135">P. 9, 135</bibl>
 <quote lang=greek>polla\ de\ pro/sqen ptera\ de/cato *ni/kas</quote></cit>.
Wreaths are wings, because they bear the champion aloft, 
<quote lang=greek>e)paei/ronti</quote> (<bibl n="Pind. O.9.23">O. 9, 23</bibl>).


See the <div3> and <lemma> tags? They relate sections of the commentary to lines of the original text. The custom in a printed book is to show the lemmata in boldface, with line numbers, and readers know that these bits of text come from the given lines in the poem. The SGML markup allows us to display the commentary in the usual way, but marks the lemmata as lemmata, so we can easily recognize them, search through them, or display them any way we like.

Now consider a more complex example, Sophocles' Philoctetes. Here is the HTML; use your browser's "view source" function to see what the code looks like. The SGML code is here. For a walk-through of interesting features of the markup, and how the SGML differs from the HTML, follow this link. More technical information about how to mark up a text can be found here.



Please send your comments concerning The Stoa: A Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities to Ross Scaife ( This document was published on: 21 December 1999