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Summary.

Adikia and Dike (Injustice and Justice).

Anangke (Necessity).

Arete (Excellence, Valor).

Basileia (Kingdom, Sovereignty, or Monarchy).

Boule (Council).

Demokratia (Democracy).

Demos (Populace) of Athens.

Demoi of demes.

Demoi of foreign cities.

Eirene (Peace).

Eukleia (Good Repute).

→ Eunomia (Good Order).

Eutaxia (Good Order).

Hellas (Greece).

Harmonia (Harmony).

Nemesis (Retribution).

Homonoia (Concord).

Oligarchia (Oligarchy).

Peitho (Persuasion).

Philia (Friendship).

Phyle/Phylai (Tribe/s).

Soteria (Salvation).

Themis.

(Agathe) Tyche (Good Fortune).

Further Reading.

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Athenian Political Art from the Fifth and Fourth Centuries BCE: Images of Political Personifications 

Amy C. Smith, edition of January 18 2003

page 13 of 26

· Eunomia (Good Order) ·

Εὐνομία

Read about the evidence
Demosthenes (Dem. 25).
Hesiod (Hes. Th.).
Sophocles (Soph. Aj.).
 
Plot on a Map
Sparta.
Athens.

Discussion: Whereas the evidence for Eukleia’s cult comes earlier than her representation as a personification, the opposite is true for Eunomia. Eunomia’s cult at Athens, which in the late fifth century has been inferred from her inclusion on vase paintings, with or without Eukleia, is not documented until a reference in a fourth century lawcourt speech to a shared altar of Eunomia, Dike, and Aidos (Reverence) (Ps.-Dem. 25.35). Also unlike Eukleia, Eunomia is extremely popular in Greek literature. Her earliest appearance is as one of the Horai, along with Dike and Eirene, in Hesiod’s Theogony (Hes. Th. 901-902). The noun Eunomia, εὐνομία , stems from the verb εὐνομέομαι , meaning to have good laws. Eunomia refers not just to the condition of having good laws, but adherence to those laws. In SophoclesAjax, for example, Eunomia means loyalty to divine law (Soph. Aj. 713). In the seventh century, the elegiac poet Tyrtaios of Sparta connected this divine law with human law, when he eulogized Eunomia as the divine right by which kings rule (Tyrtaios frs. 1-4 West, IE2.). In a democratic polis, such as Athens, eunomia also came to refer to the citizen’s obeisance to the laws (nomos), which creates good order. At the beginning of the sixth century, the Athenian statesman Solon eulogized Eunomia as a civic virtue (Solon fr. 4.31-38 West, IE2).

Plot on a Map
Sparta (in text as “Spartan”).
Aitna.
Corinth.
Opus.
Aigina.
Athens.

Although the concept is equally applicable to monarchic and democratic poleis (city states), eunomia seems to have retained an aristocratic connotation, which may have stemmed from her Spartan roots. Tyrtaios (cited above), became the classic Spartan poet, for example, and his poems were recited to Spartan troops as late as the fourth century. Eunomia’s association with oligarchies throughout the Greek world is attested by Pindar, who invoked her as the guardian of Aitna, Corinth, Opus, and Aigina, cities in which oligarchic systems prevailed (Pind. N. 9.29). The fifth century Athenian conception of aristocratic eunomia as the opposite of democratic isonomia (equality of rights) may have also derived from these monarchical Spartan roots, through the influence of the pro-Spartan oligarchs at Athens. In an interesting twist the Ionian cities rejected the Athenian oligarchs’ offer of eunomia (in 411), in favor of Spartan eleutheria (freedom). This use of eunomia certainly suggests that the concept was regarded as an oligarchic prerogative at the end of the fifth century.

Read about the evidence
Homer (HH 30).
Bacchylides (Bacchyl. Ep. 13).
 
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Paris.
Baltimore.

Eunomia also played a generalized, nonpartisan role, as a virtue that gave rise to prosperity. Eunomia’s connection to civic prosperity was expressed as early as the seventh century, in the Homeric Hymn to Ge (Earth) (Hymn. Hom. 30.11-15). And in the early fifth century Bacchylides said that Eunomia received Thaleia (Bounty) as her lot (Bacchyl. Ep. 13.186-187). On a squat lekythos, once in Paris [7], Eunomia is actually shown with Thaleia. The hope for prosperity and other joys that come with good order is also reflected on vase paintings that picture Eunomia with Eudaimonia or Eutychia (both of whom represent Prosperity) and Paidia (Play): a squat lekythos in Baltimore [2], a squat lekythos in London [6], and a lidded pyxis in London [11]. In her role as a bringer of prosperity, one might have expected Eunomia to have been connected with Eirene and Opora, personifications in the circle of Dionysos that are likewise related to (agricultural) prosperity. Anneliese Kossatz-Deissmann has even suggested that the popularity of Eunomia, on these vases produced during the Peloponnesian War, was a sign of the longing for eirene. Eunomia and Eirene are never represented together, however, in the last quarter of the fifth century.

Read about the evidence
Bacchylides (Bacchyl. Ep. 13).
Aristotle (Aristot. Ath. Pol.).
 
Plot on a Map
Aigina.
Mainz.
Athens.

Eunomia and Eukleia may have been related in cult at Aigina before 480. As mentioned above, ca. 481 Bacchylides cites Eukleia, Eunomia, and Arete as the guardians of Aigina (Bacchyl. Ep. 13.183). Roland Hampe has suggested that the cult of Eukleia was transferred from Aigina to Athens after Aigina’s forcible incorporation into the Athenian Empire (458/7), and that the cult of Eunomia followed in the late fifth century, when it may have been joined to the Athenian cult of Eukleia (Hampe 1955, 123). He has even postulated that Eukleia’s welcoming of Eunomia is expressed on a lekanis lid in Mainz [9]. Although the generic nature of the decoration on such lids [8 and 10] indicates that this reading might be too specific, Elke Böhr has now added a supporting point, that the bird held by Eunomia, a nightingale, is a symbol of welcoming into society (in CVA Mainz University 2 [1993] 45). Regardless of how and when their cults were transferred to Athens, Eukleia and Eunomia were certainly worshipped there together by the fourth century, as the kosmetes (decorators) who were responsible to the priests of Eukleia and Eunomia are mentioned in the Athenaion Politeia (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 42).

On the basis of representations in which they are part of Aphrodite’s entourage [5, 8, and 11], one might infer that Eukleia and Eunomia were also associated with the cult of Aphrodite Pandemos, but there is no other indication of such a cult connection.

Examples (all examples are certain unless otherwise noted):

Plot on a Map
Paris.
London.

  1. New York 31.11.13: a nereid, labelled ΕΥΝ[ΟΜΙΑ] , riding a dolphin on a white-ground frieze on a bilingual lekythos attributed to the Eretria Painter, ca. 430-420.
  2. Baltimore, Walters 48.205: a standing female figure, labelled ΕΥΝΟΜΙΑ , on a squat lekythos attributed to the Makaria Painter, ca. 420-410, with representations of Eutychia (Prosperity/Success) and Paidia (Play).
  3. Berlin F 2705: a standing female figure, labelled ΕΥΝΟΜΙΑ , on a squat lekythos (tallboy) attributed to the Painter of the Frankfort Acorn, ca. 410-400, with a representation of Eukleia.
  4. Budapest T 754: a standing female figure, labelled ΕΥΝΟΜΙΑ , on an oinochoe in the manner of the Meidias Painter, ca. 410-400, with a representation of Eukleia.
  5. Kansas City 31.80: a standing female figure, labelled Ε[ΥΝ]ΟΜΙΑ , on a white-ground squat lekythos attributed to the Eretria Painter, ca. 420-410, with representations of Peitho, Paidia (Play), and perhaps Eukleia.
  6. London E 697: a standing woman, labelled ΕΥΝΟΜΙΑ , leaning on Paidia (Play), on a squat lekythos, in the manner of the Meidias Painter, ca. 410-400, with representations of Eudaimonia (Prosperity, Happiness) and Peitho.
  7. A standing female figure, labelled ΕΥΝΟΜΙΑ , holding a garland, on a squat lekythos (tallboy), once in the Bauville Collection, Paris, in the manner of the Meidias Painter, ca. 410-400.
  8. Naples SA 316: a standing female figure, labelled ΕΥΝΟΜΙΑ , holding vessels, on a lekanis lid, in the manner of the Meidias Painter, ca. 410-400, with representations of Eukleia, Harmonia, and Pannychis (All-night Revel).
  9. Mainz 118: a seated female figure, labelled ΕΥΝΟΜΙΑ , holding a bird, on a lekanis lid in the manner of the Meidias Painter, ca. 410-400, with representations of Eukleia, and Paidia (Play) (shown above).
  10. Ullastret 1486: a standing female figure, labelled ΟΝΨΜΙΑ , holding perhaps a flower and a necklace, on a lekanis lid in the manner of the Meidias Painter, ca. 410-400, with a representation of Eukleia.
  11. London E 775: a seated female figure, labelled ΕΥΝΟΜΙΑ , on a lidded pyxis in the manner of the Meidias Painter, c. 410-400, with representations of Eudaimonia (Prosperity/Hapiness), Harmonia, Hygieia (Health), and Paidia (Play).
  12. New York 09.221.40: a standing female figure, labelled ΕΥΝΟΜΙΑ , holding a basket, on a pyxis, in the manner of the Meidias Painter, ca. 410-400, with representations of Eudaimonia (Happiness), Eukleia, Hygieia (Health), Paidia (Play), and Peitho.
  13. [Possible example] A standing female figure, perhaps Eunomia, on a kalpis hydria, once in the Hope Collection, ca. 425-400, with representations of Peitho and Eukleia.
  14. [Possible example] A seated female figure, perhaps Eunomia or Peitho, on a squat lekythos (tallboy), formerly in the Embiricos Collection, London, in the manner of the Meidias Painter, ca. 410-400, with a representation of Eukleia.
  15. [Possible example] Brauron 1170: a standing female figure, labelled [...]ΙΑ , perhaps Theoria (Spectacle) or Eunomia, in a Dionysiac procession on a fragmentary round altar or statue base, ca. 400, with a representation of Eirene (image of the altar).

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