xml version || id: dates|| regular expression test | epidoc appearance with standard xslt | inscription/monument dates in div type="description" | dates elsewhere, bibliography, etc. | tei p4 links | responsibility for this section | cvs information || post a comment

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Dates may be identified in the ancient text (consular years, olympiads, etc.), or in editorial discussion. The date element contains a date in any format. There are basically three contexts in which an expression might be tagged as a date in an EpiDoc file:

(Note: A year or regular date in the Gregorian calendar may simply be tagged as a <date> with no further information required from attribute values. If the date or span of dates is expressed in prose, in ancient terms, or in a different calendar, further information may be given using the following attributes.)

There are two groups of attributes which add information to the date element. The attributes 'value' and 'precision' express a single date, exactly or approximately, whereas 'notBefore', 'notAfter', and 'exact' define a span of possible dates within which the date in question may be located.


Date expressions should be given in the form recommended by ISO 8601:2000, i.e. 'yyyy-mm-dd'. This means that years below 1000 (either BCE or CE) need leading zeroes to make them up to four digits. (See examples below.) When a date is not known to the very day the shortened forms 'yyyy-mm' and 'yyyy' may be used. Dates BCE should be indicated by the placement of a minus sign (hyphen) before the date expression. (Unlike ISO 8601:2000 we do not assume the existance of a year zero in the Gregorian calendar, so 44 BCE is "-0044" not "-0043".)

There is also an additional attribute 'calendar', which may be used to express the non-regular dating system in the case of dates in the original text. Example values include: 'Attic', 'A.U.C.', 'Julian', Amphictionic, Macedonian, etc.

(Note: the difference between a single date within a span of possibilities (marked by the notBefore and notAfter attributes of <date>, as above) and an expression indicating a time period (such as the reign of an emperor). For the latter EpiDoc recommends the use of <dateRange>, as documented in the TEI Guidelines.)

Regular Expression Test

EpiDoc Encoding

EpiDoc appearance with standard XSLT

EpiDoc Encoding

  1. <date notBefore="-0399" notAfter="-0398" exact="both">399/8 BCE</date>
  2. <date notBefore="0201" notAfter="0225" exact="none">First quarter third century CE</date>
  3. <date notBefore="0014-08-19" notAfter="0045" exact="notBefore">Early Julio-Claudian</date>
  4. <date notAfter="-0027-01-16" notBefore="-0100" exact="notAfter">Late Republican</date>
  5. <date value="-0044-03-15" precision="exact">the Ides of March 44</date> (Note the use of Julian calendar!)
  6. <date value="0523-02-14" precision="exact">ἰνδικτίωνος α´ μηνὸς β´, ιδ´, ἡμέρα τρίτη</date>

Inscription/monument dates in <div type="description">

  1. 399/8 BCE
  2. First quarter third century CE
  3. Early Julio-Claudian
  4. Late Republican
  5. the Ides of March 44 (Note the use of Julian calendar!)
  6. ἰνδικτίωνος α´ μηνὸς β´, ιδ´, ἡμέρα τρίτη

EpiDoc Encoding

  1. Roueché (<date>1989</date>), no. 22

Dates elsewhere, bibliography, etc.

  1. Roueché (1989), no. 22

Responsibility for this section

CVS Information

Revision number: $Revision: 1.9 $

Revision name (if any): $Name: r-4-beta-1 $

Revision date: $Date: 2006/04/18 21:12:51 $

Revision committed by: $Author: paregorios $