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Bibliographic Citations and References

In printed texts, the individual constituents of a bibliographic reference are conventionally marked off from each other and from the flow of text by such features as bracketing, italics, special punctuation conventions, underlining, etc. In electronic texts, such distinctions are also important, whether in order to produce acceptably formatted output or to facilitate intelligent retrieval processing,For example, to distinguish London as an author's name from London as a place of publication or as a component of a title. quite apart from the need to distinguish the reference itself as a textual object with particular linguistic properties.

Bibliographical entries can be encoded in several ways in an Epidoc document or corpus, depending on the complexity of the bibliography and of the document as a whole. It should be emphasized that for references as for other textual features, the primary or sole consideration is not how the text should be formatted when it is printed. In all cases, bibliographical information is enclosed in <tei:div type="bibliography>. If the encoded inscription is a single document, or a collection of just a few inscriptions, it is sufficient to encode full bibliographic entries inside <div type="bibliography">. Larger corpora, or inscriptions that are part of a bigger project with shared bibliography are better off listing bibliography inside <tei:div type="bibliography> as a series of references pointing to bibliographic entries collected in a separate file.

Bibliographical information may be associated with several different sections, such as commentary, history or apparatus criticus. These relationships are indicated by grouping bibliographic items in a <listBibl> for each section. Display of bibliographic information is controlled by the output software, and can occur either in the appropriate section or all together in a group. Bibliographic citations are also required in several places in the TEI header.

Examples of different categories of bibliographical reference.

The rest of this section is based on the corresponding chapter of the TEI P5 Guidelines. Epidoc recommends using a subsection of the all possible bibliographic elements. Epidoc also recommends marking bibliography according to normal modern bibliographic practice, as well as using consistent short references to refer to bibliographic items.

Elements of Bibliographic References

The following elements are used to mark individual bibliographic references as wholes, or in groups: These elements all share a number of possible component sub-elements. For the bibl element, they are described in section , for biblItem they are described in section . listBibl is described in section

A list of bibliographic items is encoded using listBibl element which may contain only bibliographic elements, optionally preceded by a heading and a series of introductory paragraphs. listBibl has takes an optional type attribute whose value is one of (list here). The type attribute is used to associate the bibliographic list contained within listBibl with one of the content section of the Epidoc document. Bibliography Ted Nelson: Literary Machines (privately published, 1987) Baxter, Glen Glen Baxter His Life: the years of struggle London: Thames and Hudson, 1988.

The formal declarations for these elements are as follows:

Components of Bibliographic References

This section discusses a number of very commonly occurring component elements of bibliographic references. They fall into four groups:

The following sections describe the elements which may be used to represent such information within a bibl. The list of elements is exhaustive, and it is likely that only projects with a particular emphasis on bibliography will use all of them.

Analytic, Monographic, and Series Levels

In common library practice a clear distinction is made between an individual item within a larger collection and a free-standing book, journal, or collection. Similarly a book in a series is distinguished sharply from the series within which it appears. An article forming part of a collection which itself appears in a series thus has a bibliographic description with three quite distinct levels of information:

  1. the analytic analytic level bibliographic level, giving the title, author, etc., of the article;
  2. the monographic monographic level bibliographic level, giving the title, editor, etc., of the collection;
  3. the series series level bibliographic level, giving the title of the series, possibly the names of its editors, etc., and the number of the volume within that series.
In the same way, an article in a journal requires at least two levels of information: the analytic level describing the article itself, and the monographic level describing the journal.

For purposes of TEI encoding, journals and anthologies are both treated as monographs; a journal title will thus be tagged as a title level="j" element, or simply as a title within a monogr element. Individual articles in the journal or collected texts should be treated at theanalytic level. When an article has been printed in more than one journal or collection, the bibliographic reference may have more than one monogr element, each possibly followed by one or more series elements. A series element always relates to the most recently preceding monogr element. (Whether reprints of an article are treated in the same bibliographic reference or a separate one varies among different styles. Library lists typically use a different entry for each publication, while academic footnoting practice typically treats all publications of the same article in a single entry.)

Punctuation may not appear between the elements within a structured bibliographic entry; if punctuation is to be given explicitly in the encoding, it must be contained within the elements it delimits. As the example shows, it is possible to encode the entry without any inter-element punctuation: this facilitates use of the biblStruct element in systems which can render bibliographic references in any of several styles.

The formal declarations for the elements defined in this section are as follows:

Authors, Titles, and Editors

Bibliographic references typically begin with a statement of the title being cited and the names of those intellectually responsible for it. For articles in journals or collections, such statements should appear both for the analytic and for the monographic level. The following elements are provided for tagging such elements:

In bibliographic references, all titles should be tagged as such, whether analytic, monographic, or series titles. The single elementtitle is used for all these cases. When it appears directly within an analytic, monogr, or series element, title is interpreted as belonging to the appropriate level. When it appears elsewhere, its level attribute should be used to signal its bibliographic level. It is a semantic error to give a value for the level attribute which is inconsistent with the context; such values may be ignored. The level value a implies the analytic level; the valuesm, j, and u imply the monographic level; the value s implies the series level. Note, however, that the semantic error occurs only if the nested title is directly enclosed by the analytic, monogr, or series element; if it is enclosed only indirectly, no semantic error need be present. For example, the analytic title may contain a monographic title: Lucy Allen Paton Notes on Manuscripts of the Prophécies de Merlin PMLA 8 1913 122 In this case, the analytic title Notes on Manuscripts of theProphécies de Merlin needs no level attribute because it is directly contained by the analytic level; the monographic title contained within it, Prophécies de Merlin, does not create a semantic error because it is not directly contained by the analytic element.

In some bibliographic applications, it may prove useful to distinguish main titles from subordinate titles, parallel titles, etc. The type attribute is provided to allow this distinction to be recorded.

The following reference, from a national standard for bibliographic references,American National Standard for Bibliographic References, ANSI Z39.29-1977 (New York: American National Standards Institute, 1977), p. 34 (sec. A.2.2.1). illustrates this type of analysis with its distinction between main and subordinate titles. Saarikoski, Pirkko-Liisa, and Paavo Suomalainen, Studies on the physiology of the hibernating hedgehog, 15 Effects of seasonal and temperature changes on the in vitro glycerol release from brown adipose tissue Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A4 1972 187: 1-4

Slightly more complex is the distinction made below among main, subordinate, and parallel titles, in an example from the same source (p. 63). The punctuation and the bibliographic analysis are those given in ANSI Z39.29-1977; the punctuation is in the style prescribed by the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD).The analysis is not wholly unproblematic: as the text of the standard points out, the first subordinate title is subordinate only to the parallel title in French, while the second is subordinate to both the English main title and the French parallel title, without this relationship being made clear, either in the markup given in the example or in the reference structure offered by the standard. Again, it is only because this example uses bibl rather than biblStruct, that specific punctuation may be included between the component elements of the reference. Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilich.The swan lake ballet = Le lac des cygnes : grand ballet en 4 actes : op. 20 [Score]. New York: Broude Brothers; [1951] (B.B. 59). vi, 685 p.

The elements author and editor have, for printed books and articles, a fairly obvious significance; for other kinds of bibliographic items their proper usage may be less obvious. Theauthor element should be used for the person or agency with primary responsibility for a work's intellectual content, and the element editor for an editor of the work. Thus an organization such as a radio or television station is usually accountedauthor of a broadcast, for example, while the author of a Government report will usually be the agency which produced it.

For anyone else with responsibility for the work, therespStmt element should be used. The nature of the responsibility is indicated by means of a resp element, and the person, organization, etc. responsible by a name,persName, or orgName element. Strings such asunknwon may be encoded using the rs element. At least one of the four naming elements (name,persName, orgName, or rs — at present the TEI schema files also permit geogName andplaceName, but these should not be used) and oneresp element should be given within the respStmt element, followed optionally by any number of any of them.

Examples of secondary responsibility of this kind include the roles of illustrator, translator, encoder, and annotator. The respStmt element may also be used for editors, if it is desired to record the specific terms in which their role is described.

Examples of author and editor may be found in sections , and ; whereverauthor and editor may occur, the respStmt element may also occur. When one of these elements precedes or immediately follows a title, it applies to that title; when it follows an edition element or occurs within an edition statement, it applies to the edition in question.

In this example, the respStmt elements apply to the work as a whole, not merely to the first edition: Lominadze, D. G. Cyclotron waves in plasma. translated by A. N. Dellis; edited by S. M. Hamberger. 1st ed. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1981. 206 p. International series in natural philosophy. Translation of: Ciklotronnye volny v plazme.

In this example, by contrast, the respStmt element applies to the edition, and not to the collection per se (Moser and Tervooren were not responsible for the first thirty-five printings); the elements of the reference have been reordered from their appearance on the title page of the volume in order to ensure the correct relationship of the collection title, the edition statement, and the statement of responsibility. Des Minnesangs Frühling Mit 1 Faksimile 36., neugestaltete und erweiterte Auflage Unter Benutzung der Ausgaben von Karl Lachmann und Moriz Haupt, Friedrich Vogt und Carl von Kraus bearbeitet von Hugo Moser Helmut Tervooren I Texte Stuttgart S. Hirzel Verlag 1977 With the exception of the name element (for which see section), the elements described in this section are defined as follows:

Imprint, Pagination, and Other Details

By imprint is meant all the information relating to the publication of a work: the person or organization by whose authority and in whose name a bibliographic entity such as a book is made public or distributed (whether a commercial publisher or some other organization), the place of publication, and a date. It may also include a full address for the publisher or organization. Full bibliographic references usually specify either the number of pages in a print publication (or equivalent information for non-print materials), or the specific location of the material being cited within its containing publication. The following elements are provided to hold this information:

For bibliographic purposes, usually only the place (or places) of publication are required, possibly including the name of the country, rather than a full address; the element pubPlace is provided for this purpose. Where however the full postal address is likely to be of importance in identifying or locating the bibliographic item concerned, it may be supplied and tagged using the address element described in section . Alternatively, if desired, thers or name elements described in section may be used; this involves no claim that the information given is either a full address or the name of a city.

The name of the publisher of an item should be marked using thepublisher tag even if the item is made public (published) by an organization other than a conventional publisher, as is frequently the case with technical reports: Nicholas, Charles K. Welsch, Lawrence A. On the interchangeability of SGML and ODA Gaithersburg, MD National Institute of Standards and Technology January 1992 19 pp. NISTIR 4681 and with dissertations: Hansen, W. Creation of hierarchic text with a computer display Ph.D. dissertation Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford Univ. Stanford, CA June 1971

When an item has been reprinted, especially reprinted without change from a specific earlier edition, the reprint may appear in amonogr element with only the imprint and other details of the reprint. In the following example, a microform reprint has been issued without any change in the title or authorship. The series statement here applies only to the second monogr element. Shirley, James The gentlemen of Venice a tragi-comedie presented at the private house in Salisbury Court by Her Majesties servants [Microform] London H. Moseley 1655 78 p. New York Readex Microprint 1953 1 microprint card, 23 x 15 cm. Three centuries of drama: English, 1642–1700

A bibliographic description, particularly for an analytic title, will often include some additional information specifying its location, for example as a volume number, page number, range of page numbers, or name or number of a subdivision of the host work. The elementbiblScope may be used to identify such information if it is present. Where it is desired to distinguish different classes of such information (volume number, page number, chapter number, etc.), thetype attribute may be used with any convenient typology.

When the item being cited is a journal article, the imprint element describing the issue in which it appeared will typically containbiblScope elements for volume and page numbers, together with adate element.

For example: Wrigley, E. A. Parish registers and the historian Steel, D. J. National index of parish registers London Society of Genealogists 1968 vol. 1 pp. 155–167.

The type attribute on biblScope is optional: both the following are legal examples: Boguraev, Branimir Neff, Mary Text Representation, Dictionary Structure, and Lexical Knowledge Literary & Linguistic Computing 7 2 1992 110-112 Chesnutt, David Historical Editions in the States Computers and the Humanities 25.6 (December, 1991): 377–380

Formal definitions for the elements described in this section are as follows:

Note and date are defined elsewhere, as are extent, address, and idno.

Series Information

Series information may (in bibl elements) or must (inbiblStruct elements) be enclosed in a series element or (in a biblFull element) a seriesStmt element. The title of the series may be tagged <title level="s">, the volume number <biblScope type="volume">, and responsibility statements for the series (e.g. the name and affiliation of the editor, as in the example in section ) may be taggededitor or respStmt.

Notes and Other Additional Information

Explanatory notes about the publication of unusual items, the form of an item (e.g. [Score] or [Microform]), or its provenance (e.g. translation of ...) may be tagged using the note element. The same element may be used for any descriptive annotation of a bibliographic entry in a database.

For example: Coombs, James H., Allen H. Renear, and Steven J. DeRose. Markup Systems and the Future of Scholarly Text Processing. Communications of the ACM 30.11 (November 1987): 933–947. Classic polemic supporting descriptive over procedural markup in scholarly work.

Order of Components within References

The order of elements in bibl elements is not constrained.

Structure of Bibliographic Items

Although TEI provides for many different and powerful ways to structure bibliographic entries, Epidoc recommends using one of two basic models: a flat, traditional bibliographic entry, using a bibl, or a nested entry that facilitates data entry, which uses the biblItem element.

Traditional Bibliographic Entries

This form of bibliographic entry is best suited to small corpora or publications of single inscriptions, where the bibliography for each inscription is contained within the div type="bibliography" section. If bibliography for many inscriptions is collected into a single file, then this model is best suited when there aren't many entries.

Traditional bibliography uses the bibliographic components, and just lists the author, title, publisher year and specific reference if there is one.

Add Example here

Nested Bibliographic Entries

Nested bibliographic items use the biblItem element. This element contains other biblItem elements, each of which has a role attribute describing its relationship to its containing element. The most common value will be "contained." EM: name is up for grabs.. The intent of this structure is to eliminate the need to retype entries for publications that contain other publication. So, in the case of journal article, the outermost biblItem will document the journal, a second level biblItem documents the volume, and the innermost biblItem documents the article. Likewise for edited collections, the innermost biblItem represents the article, which is then contained by a biblItem representing the volume. EM: note that this element may disappear from P5, so we'll have to edit to make this section describe bibl, which will most likely take over its function. Also, need better description.

Add Example here.

Bibliographic Pointers

References which are pointers to bibliographic items, of whatever kind, should be treated in the same way as other cross-references (see section ). As discussed in that section, cross referencing within TEI texts is in general represented by means ofptr or ref elements. A target attribute on these elements is used to supply an identifying value for the target of the cross reference, which should be, in the case of bibliographic elements, a bibliographic reference of some kind. Where the form of the reference itself is unimportant, or may be reconstructed mechanically, or is not to be encoded, the ptr element is used, as in the following example:As shown above () ... It is best to avoid the use of the ptr element.

Where the form of the reference is important, or contains additional qualifying information which is to be distinguished from the surrounding text, the ref element should be used, as in the following example:CILII 345 ... In this way, an overall bibliography may be maintained separately, and references to it may be placed where they are necessary, without risking typing errors and inconsistencies. The target points to the id of the appropriate bibl or biblItem, and the content of the ref element contains a reference to a page or item number..

Relationship to Other Bibliographic Schemes

The bibliographic markup described in this section is a subset of the bibliographic markup provided by TEI P5. For more information about how it maps to other commonly used systems like ProCite and BibText, please read the corresponding section of P5.

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