Information concerning the rooms in Casa di Giuseppe II

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Entranceway a
Front hall b
Room c
Room d
Room e
Room f
Room g
Room d'
Stairway n
Room m
Room l
Room k
Room h
Room p
Corridor q
Room r
Corridor t
Room u
Room s
Area w
Room v
Room x
Area y
Area z
Room I
Room II
Room III
Room IV
Room V
Room VI
Corridor a'
Corridor b'
Room f'
Room f"
Stairway e'
Area h'
Room l'
Room k'
Room i'
Room th'
Room z'
Terrace m'
First Lower Floor
Corridor 01
Room 02
Room 03
Room 04
Corridor 05
Room 06
Room 07
Room 08
Upper Levels

Entranceway a in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Entranceway a led from the south side of the street to the north of this insula to front hall b. The walls had once been decorated in the First Style (Mau 1887:110). The pavement was probably lavapesta.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Front hall b in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Front hall b was entered through entranceway a to the north. Rooms c and d' opened off its north side; rooms d, e, f, and g off the east side; stairway n and rooms m, l, k and h off the west side; and corridors q and t and room r off the south side. The walls were undecorated except for the remains of some First-Style decoration (Mau 1887:113). The pavement was of cocciopesto with a figurative mosaic datable to the Fourth Style (Carafa and D'Alession 1995/1996:140).

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

The central water-catchment pool (impluvium) was furbished in tufa, and there were two cistern mouths beside it. Loose finds included four bone hinges, two inscribed ceramic amphorae, an iron fitting, and a fragmentary marble statue, reportedly from a fountain.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:113), this front hall had been left undecorated after the walls had been reconstructed. The presence of hinges suggests that it had been used for domestic storage, as seen in other front halls, and the amphorae hint at bulk storage (see the Casa del Principe di Napoli and House VIII 2,28). While the statue could conceiveably have been broken during post-eruption disturbance, the failure of the excavators to find its legs suggests that it had been damaged during or prior to the eruption. The lack of decoration on the walls but the presence of furniture suggests downgrading of this reportedly formal front hall. This downgrading might not seem commensurate with the decoration of the surrounding rooms in the Fourth Style and could therefore have been later. The presence of display statuary, particularly if it had been broken prior to the eruption, hints at disrupted circumstances.

Carafa and D'Alessio (1995/1996:140) reported that four large pits that had been cut into the pavement were datable to the Augustan period but also contained material from the Julio-Claudian and Vespasianic periods. They suggested that these pits had been used to extract lava for restoration purposes. The presence of material of Vespasianic date suggests that some of this restoration had been carried out after AD 68 and would have caused considerable disruption to this part of the house.


Room c in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room c (figure D.214) was in the northeast area of front hall b and was entered from it through a narrow doorway in the center of the south wall. The decoration on the walls was in the Fourth Style (Mau 1887:112; Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben 1936:28﹣30), consisting of a red socle zone with panels, ornamental bands, and plants and a central zone of green fields with central panels (Europa and the bull) and vignettes separated by candelabra against a white ground. The pavement was cocciopesto decorated with a carpet pattern of scattered white tesserae with a meander border.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This room had a niche in the south wall. To the left of it, six nails were attached to the wall, which the excavators thought had been used for the hanging of a garland. A pile of masonry found in the southeast corner was thought to have been an altar. Loose finds included the marble foot of a statue, a bronze lid, a bronze fruttiera, three small ceramic vessels, several small glass bottles, two bronze buckles, a bronze lamp-stand, a painted stone altar, twenty-three glass beads and a seashell.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:112) and to Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben (1936:28﹣30), this room had been decorated in the Fourth Style before the earthquake of AD 62, because the west part of the south wall had later been rebuilt and left unplastered. The finds were generally domestic in character, although broken statuary suggests salvaging (see room D in the Casa degli Amorini Dorati). The broken statuary had conceivably been part of the statue found in the front hall. This room might therefore have gone through one alteration and possibly further disruption after it had been decorated in the Fourth Style.


Room d in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room d was in the northeast corner of front hall b and was entered from it through a doorway in the south end of the west wall. The walls had originally been decorated in a simple Second Style of imitation marble (Mau 1887:116). There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

There is a mound against the west wall of this room, which Mau interpreted (1887:112) as a small hearth with two ovens. There was a gettatoio against the east wall.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:116), this had been a triclinium decorated in the Second Style, but it was later transformed for another use. The finds suggest a downgrading comparable to room 03 in the Casa del Menandro, which is of this room type.


Room e in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room e was on the east side of front hall b and was entered from it through a narrow doorway at the south end of the west wall. The walls were coarsely plastered (Mau 1887:116). The pavement was cocciopesto decorated with a lattice pattern of meanders in white tesserae.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This room had a stairway along the south wall leading to an upper floor.

Interpretations of room:

Mau (1887:116) identified this room as the slaves' sleeping quarters.


Room f in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room f was on the east side of front hall b and entered from it through a narrow doorway in the west wall or from room g through a narrow doorway in the west end of the south wall. The walls were decorated in the Fourth Style (Mau 1887:112), consisting of a socle zone of black panels with ornamental borders and a central zone with central red aedicula, a landscape panel, and yellow side fields separated by candelabra against a black background. The pavement was cocciopesto decorated with a net pattern of hexagons in white tesserae.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This room had a niche in the west wall painted with peacocks.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:112), this was a cubiculum.


Room g in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room g was on the east side of front hall b and was fully open onto it for its west side. A narrow doorway in the west end of the north wall provided access to room f. The walls were decorated in the Fourth Style, consisting of a yellow socle zone with panels, ornamental bands, and plants and a central zone of black and red fields with central panels (Narcissus, Ariadne) and separated by yellow bands. The pavement was in cocciopesto.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:112), this room was an ala.


Room d' in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room d' was on the north side of front hall b and was entered from it through a narrow doorway in the west end of the south wall. There is no record or visible evidence of the wall covering or pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This room had a bench against the east wall towards the south end. A latrine was located in the northeast corner and a cistern mouth and downpipe from the upper story in the southwest corner. Loose finds consisted of two glass bottles, a bronze needle, and a clay lamp.

Interpretations of room:

The fixtures in this room suggest it had been a kitchen (Mau 1887:121). Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben (1936:29) dated their construction to after the Fourth Style. The loose finds seem out of place. They are more in character with those usually found in upper stories and may have fallen here.


Stairway n in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Stairway n was in the northwest corner of front hall b. The walls were furbished with a high pink socle with white plaster above.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No loose finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

According to Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben (1936:29), the stairway leading to the upper floor had been altered after the beginning of the Fourth Style, giving access to room VIII 2,38.


Room m in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room m was located on the west side of front hall b and was entered from it through a narrow doorway in the north end of the east wall. The walls were decoratd in Fourth Style (Mau 1887:121) consisiting of a central zone with a central aedicula against a white ground and yellow side fields with ornamental borders and small panels, a red and blue stuccoed cornice and a yellow upper zone. The pavement was in cocciopesto.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

Iron nails were found in the south and west walls of this room.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:121), it had been a spacious cubiculum. The presence of nails in the walls suggests that it had subsequently been downgraded (see room 43 in the Casa del Menandro).


Room l in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room l was on the west side of front hall b and was entered from it through a narrow doorway in the north end of the east wall. The walls were covered with white plaster, and the pavement was of cocciopesto decorated with a carpet pattern of a lattice of meanders in white tesserae.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This room had three rows of shelves on each of the north, west, and south walls.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:120), this had been a storeroom, its white plastering and the installation of shelving probably executed after the Fourth-Style decoration in this house (Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben 1936:29; Carafa and D'Alessio 1995-1996:140).


Room k in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room k (figure D.215) was on the west side of front hall b and entered from it through a narrow doorway in the north end of the east wall. The walls were covered with white plaster, and the pavement was of cocciopesto decorated with a lattice of rhomboids in white tesserae.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This room also had three rows of shelves on each of the north, west, and south walls. A gold ring was found attached to a nail and fixed to the wall.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:120), this also had been a storeroom. Again, its white plastering and the installation of shelving had probably been executed after the Fourth-Style decoration in this house (Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben 1936:29; Carafa and D'Alessio 1995-1996:140). The placement of a gold ring could have been either a method for storage or have had some ritual significance.


Room h in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room h was on the west side of front hall b and was fully open onto the latter along the east side. The walls were decorated in the Fourth Style (Mau 1887:112), consisting of a black socle zone with panels; a central zone with yellow and red fields with central aediculae, vignettes, and ornamental borders, separated by candelabra against a black ground; and an upper zone of green and yellow horizontal bands with architectural motifs.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

Steps had been cut into the north wall near the west end (figure D.216).

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

In the south end of the west wall was a built-in cupboard furbished with white plaster and with three rows of shelving.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:112), this room was an ala.


Room p in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room p was on the south side of room h and had a window overlooking it in the center of the north wall. It was accessible from corridor q through a narrow doorway in the south end of the east wall or from room v through a doorway in the center of the south wall. The walls were decorated in the Fourth Style, consisting of a yellow socle zone with panels, a central zone of red fields with vignettes of animals separated by architectural openings and candelabra against a yellow background, and a yellow frieze. The pavement was in black and white mosaic (Mau 1887:112).

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This room had a recess against the west wall and a built-in cupboard in the northwest corner. Finds were reportedly made in the southwest corner but not described.

Interpretations of room:

Because of the recess in the west wall, Mau concluded (1887:124) that this had once been a spacious cubiculum that had later been transformed into an oecus or triclinium when it had been decorated in the Fourth Style.


Corridor q in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Corridor q led from the south side of front hall b to area w. It also provided access to room p through a narrow doorway in the south end of the west wall. The decoration on the east wall consisted of a black socle zone with green and white bands, and a central and upper zone of red orthostats with blue panels, a molded cornice, and a row of green ashlar blocks. According to Mau (1887:112), this was a Fourth-Style imitation of the Second Style. The pavement was white mosaic with scattered black tesserae.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room r in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room r was in the center of the south side of front hall b and was entered from it through a wide doorway in the north wall. The south side was also almost fully open onto area w. The walls were decorated in the Fourth Style, consisting of a yellow socle zone with panels and a central zone with a central aedicula against a black background and side fields with small panels. The pavement was in black and white mosaic (Mau 1887:112).

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:122), this was a tablinum.


Corridor t in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Corridor t provided access from the southeast corner of front hall b to room u. There is no record or visible evidence of the wall covering. The pavement was in lavapesta (Mau 1887:112).

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room u in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room u was to the east of corridor t and was entered from it through a doorway in the north end of the west wall. It also provided access to the mezzanine and lower floors and to room s and area w through narrow doorways at the south end of the west wall. There is no record or visible evidence of the wall covering. The pavement was in lavapesta (Mau 1887:112).

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

A wooden stairway ascended along the east wall to an upper floor. Against the north wall were a stone seat and puteal. A fragment from an Ionic column stood on the former. At the south end a stone stairway descended to the lower floors.

Interpretations of room:

The column fragment seems out of place in this context and conceivably suggests salvaging.


Room s in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room s was to the west of area u and was entered from it through a narrow doorway in the south end of the east wall. It also had a wide opening in the south wall onto area w. The walls were decorated in the Second Style (Mau 1887:112), consisting of a red plinth, a red socle zone with green bands, and a central zone of red and purple orthostats with blue panels. The pavement was in white mosaic (Mau 1887:125).

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

According to Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben (1936:24), this had been a bedroom.


Area w in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

This was an open area to the south of the house. Corridor q and rooms r and s opened off its north side, rooms u and x and garden y off its east side, and room v and garden z off its west side. The walls were probably furbished in a white Fourth Style (Mau 1887:126; Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben 1936:23). The pavement was white mosaic with black borders.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room v in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

This is a large room on the west side of area w with two large windows and a narrow doorway in the south end of the east wall opening onto the latter. It is also fully open along its south side onto garden z. The walls were decorated in the Fourth Style (Mau 1887:127), consisting of a black socle zone with meanders, a red central zone with floating cupids, and a white upper zone. The pavement was white mosaic with a black border (Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben 1936:23).

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:127), this room had been a triclinium.


Room x in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room x was on the east side of area w, with two large windows and a narrow doorway in the south end of the west wall opening onto the latter. It was also fully open along its south side onto garden y. The walls were decorated in the Second Style (Mau 1887:127). The pavement was white mosaic with a black border (Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben 1936:23).

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

This room has also been identified as a triclinium (Mau 1887:127).


Area y in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

This open area was to the south of room x and was only partially preserved. The walls were decorated in the Fourth Style (Mau 1887:112). The pavement was white mosaic (Mau 1887:127).

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Area z in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

This open area was to the south of room v but was poorly preserved. There is no record or visible evidence of any wall covering or pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room I in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

This room was on a mezzanine floor above the west end of corridor b', but determining its access was not possible. The walls were furbished with coarse pink plaster (Mau 1887:128). There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room II in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room II was on a mezzanine floor above room i'. Since the room no longer exists, its access could not be determined. The walls were furbished with coarse pink plaster (Mau 1887:128). There is no record of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:130), this had been a slave's bedroom, but Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben identified it as a cistern (1936:24).


Room III in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room III was on a mezzanine floor above room l'. Since it no longer exists, determining its access was not possible. The walls were furbished with a white plaster (Mau 1887:131). There is no record of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:130), this had also been a slave's bedroom, but Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben identified it as a cistern (1936:24).


Room IV in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room IV was on a mezzanine floor on the east side of the stairway leading from room u to corridor a". It had been entered from the stairway through a narrow doorway in the north end of the west wall. A doorway in the center of the south wall provided access to room V, but this has been blocked and plastered. A window in the south wall provided light from room V. The walls were furbished with a white plaster (Mau 1887:131). There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room V in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room V was on a mezzanine floor to the south of room IV and had been entered from it through a narrow doorway in the center of the north wall, which was latter blocked. A doorway in the east end of the south wall provided access to room VI. The walls were furbished with white plaster (Mau 1887:131). There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room VI in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room VI was on a mezzanine floor to the south of room V and was probably accessible from it through a narrow doorway in the east end of the north wall and a walkway above stairway e'. There is no record or visible evidence of any wall covering or pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

In the southeast corner of this room was a masonry tub with steps leading into it.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Corridor a' in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Corridor a' (figure D.217) led from the stairway in room u to rooms on the first lower floor. Corridor b', room l', and area h' opened off its west side, and rooms f', f", and stairway e' are accessible from its east side. The walls were covered with pink plaster, and the pavement was lavapesta with rows of white tesserae.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

A bronze basin was found in this corridor.

Interpretations of room:

This seems an unlikely find for a corridor and may have been disturbed from elsewhere on this floor, possibly from the same location as those objects listed as unprovenanced first lower floor finds (room LF').


Corridor b' in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Corridor b', on the first lower ground floor, led from the south side of corridor a' along the north side of rooms th', i', k', and l' but did not provide access to them. The walls and ceiling were furbished with pink plaster. The pavement was probably lavapesta with terra-cotta fragments.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

There was a masonry shelf along the east wall of this area. A stone basin was found in the southwest corner.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room f' in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room f' was on the first lower ground floor. It wa on the east side of corridor a' and was entered from it through a narrow doorway in the south end of the west wall. The walls were coarsely plastered. There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

Numerous iron nails were found in the walls of this room.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room f" in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room f'' was on the first lower ground floor. It was on the east side of corridor a' and was entered from it through a narrow doorway in the south end of the west wall. The walls were decorated in a simple Fourth Style (Mau 1887:128) consisting of a white socle zone, a white central zone delineated with red bands and a white lunetted with red bands. There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This room also had numerous iron nails in the walls.

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:128), this room originally had coarsely plastered walls but had later been decorated in the Fourth Style. The nails must have defaced this decoration (see room m in this house, and room 43 in the Casa del Menandro).


Stairway e' in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

This stone stairway led from the southeast corner of corridor a' and descended from the first lower ground floor to the lowest level to corridor 01. The walls were furbished with a pink socle with white plaster above.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No loose finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Area h' in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

This was an open area, on the first lower ground floor, with rooms i', k', and l' opening off its north side, room th' opening off its west side, corridor a' and room z' off its east side and leading to terrace m' along the south side of this floor. The walls were decorated in the Second Style (Mau 1887:129) with a red socle zone. There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

In the southwest corner of this room was a mound of masonry, reportedly a hearth. Into it was set a ceramic vase.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room l' in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room l' was on the first lower ground floor, in the northeast corner of area h'. It was entered from the latter through a wide doorway in the south side or from corridor a' through a narrow doorway in the south end of the east wall. The walls were decorated in the Second Style (Mau 1887:130) with a black plinth, a white socle zone with panels delineated in black, and a white central zone with molded red cornice and blue bands. The pavement was in cocciopesto decorated with a lattice pattern of squares in white tesserae with central crosses in black tesserae.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

According to Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben (1936:24), this had been a bedroom.


Room k' in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room k' was on the first lower ground floor, on the north side of area h'. It was entered from the latter through a wide opening in the south wall, or from room i' through a narrow doorway in the south end of the west wall. The walls were decorated in the Second Style, consisting of large red orthostats (Mau 1887:129﹣30). There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room i' in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room i' was on the first lower ground floor, in the northwest corner of area h' and entered from it through a wide opening in the south wall or from room k' through a narrow doorway in the south end of the east wall. The walls were decorated in the Second Style on a white ground (Mau 1887:130). The pavement was in cocciopesto ornamented with a lattice pattern of squares with central crosses in white tesserae.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

The finds from here included bronze fittings, possibly from furniture, a marble lion's head from a fountain, four ceramic vessels and two marble mortars with pestles, a bronze needle, and a fragment of jewelry.

Interpretations of room:

Mau identified this room as a bedroom (1887:129; see also Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben 1936:24). The combination of utilitarian utensils and broken statuary in such a room conceivably suggests altered function, possibly downgrading.


Room th' in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room th' was on the first lower ground floor, on the west side of area h' and entered from it through a narrow doorway towards the south end of the east wall. A large window opened off the south side overlooking terrace m'. The walls were decorated in the Second Style on a black ground (Mau 1887:129). The lunette was white, and the ceiling had red bands and decorative elements on a white ground. The pavement was in cocciopesto decorated with a lattice pattern of hexagons with central crosses in white tesserae.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

A masonry mound in the southeast corner was believed to have once been a table (Mau 1887:130).

Interpretations of room:

According to Mau (1887:130), this was a triclinium and the mound had been built after the decoration and used for serving meals. Such a structure is unprecedented and might rather indicate downgrading, as seen in similar rooms (for example, room d).


Room z' in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room z' was on the first lower ground floor, on the east side of area h' and was entered from it through a narrow doorway in the south end of the west wall. The walls were decorated in the Fourth Style (Mau 1887:112), consisting of a socle zone of red panels separated by yellow borders and a central zone of black fields with ornamental borders and yellow candelabra. Above was a frieze and molded cornice. The pavement was in cocciopesto decorated with a lattice pattern of hexagons with central crosses.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This area contained a large vat reportedly for washing. Loose finds included a metal patera, a glass bottle, three bronze hinges, and two coins.

Interpretations of room:

The two vessels were conceivably associated with washing (see bathing equipment in room L in the Casa degli Amorini Dorati).


Terrace m' in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Terrace m' was on the first lower ground floor, to the south of this floor and was accessible through area h' to the north. Rooms th' and z' had large windows overlooking this terrace. There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This terrace or garden area had a downpipe leading to the bath suite below.

Interpretations of room:

The lack of recorded finds here was perhaps owing to its state of preservation rather than lack of activity


First Lower Floor in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

Unprovenanced finds from this area consisted of: a number of marble decorative fragments, including a stone sundial on a marble base; a bone hinge; a number of bronze winged hinges; two glass bottles and a glass paste inset; a bone calamaio; and two skeletons with two gold finger-rings. Excavations in four of the rooms on this level, in front of dignitaries, produced: five bone hinges and other bone and bronze fittings, some seemingly from cupboards or chests; a number of bronze vases and basins; one glass vase; several ceramic vessels, including three amphorae; bronze scales; numerous fragments of small scale statuary; jewelry; silver and bronze fragments; a bone dice; a clay lamp; two bronze buckles; and nine bronze coins. In two of the other rooms were found a skeleton and two coins. In the deposit above the vaulted rooms of this area, possibly above rooms i’ and l’, were found: bronze fittings; four bronze vessels, a ceramic amphora and a ceramic cup; an iron knife blade; a terra-cotta statuette, lacking arms and legs, and a terra-cotta gargoyle; bronze furniture fittings; a ceramic lamp; two bone spindles; and a bronze coin.

Interpretations of room:

It would appear that one of the rooms on this floor had at least one container filled with domestic utensils, items of human adornment and small sculptural remains. Combinations of utilitarian vessels and luxury items have been witnessed in other houses (see the front hall of the Casa dei Quadretti Teatrali and room f in the Casa del Sacello Iliaco).


Corridor 01 in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Corridor 01 led from stairway e' to the rooms of the second lower floor. Room 02 opened off its east side and room 03 and corridor 05 off its south end. The walls were covered with white plaster. There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room 02 in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room 02 was on the second lower floor. It was on the east side of corridor 01 and was entered from it through the west side. The walls were plastered. There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This room had a recess in the east end of the north wall.

Interpretations of room:

The recess was seemingly unsuitable for a bed. As this room had more probably been a storeroom, this recess might have served for storage purposes (see room A in the Casa del Menandro).


Room 03 in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room 03 was on the second lower floor. It was at the south end of corridor 01 and was entered from it through a narrow doorway in the west end of the north wall. Room 04 was accessible from the north side of this room. The walls of room 03 were furbished with a yellow plastered socle and the pavement was in opus spicatum (Mau 1887:132).

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

An oven stood in the northeast corner of this room (figure D.218), and the west wall had a quadrangular opening. A large masonry tub in the southeast corner contained a ceramic vase filled with lime. Near it was found a skeleton. A large ceramic basin was found in the center of the room.

Interpretations of room:

The tub had been built after the yellow plastering (Mau 1887:132). This room had no doubt been used to heat the bath complex that consisted of rooms 07, 06, and 08 (see oven in room D in the Casa del Menandro). HOwever, a vase filled with lime seems an unexpected find for such a location and hints at refurbishing activities (see room 49 in the Casa del Menandro). The skeleton was likely to have been that of an occupant of the house who had taken refuge here during the final eruption.


Room 04 in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room 04 was on the second lower floor. It was to the north of room 03 and was entered from it through a narrow doorway in the west end of the south wall. The walls were coarsely furbished with a serpent painted on the east wall (Mau 1887:133). There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This room had a niche in the south wall and two masonry supports in the center of the room.

Interpretations of room:

The supports had reportedly been for a bread-making table (Mau 1887:133). This interpretation was based on the assumption that the oven had been a bread oven. If so, it would have served a dual purpose.


Corridor 05 in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Corridor 05 was on the second lower floor and led west from the south end of corridor 01 to room 06. The walls were painted in the Second Style (Mau 1887:133) with a yellow socle zone, a central zone of red orthostats, a yellow upper zone, a stuccoed cornice, and a white lunette. The pavement was of cocciopesto.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

None.


Room 06 in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room 06 was on the second lower floor. It was on the south side of corridor 05 and entered from it through a narrow doorway in the east end of the north wall. Room 07 was accessible from the east side of this room and room 08 from the west side. The walls were decorated with imitation marble (Mau 1887:133), consisting of a white plinth, a red socle zone, a central zone of red orthostats, and an upper zone of rows of ashlar blocks in red and white. The pavement was white mosaic.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

No finds were reported.

Interpretations of room:

Mau (1887:133) identified this room as an apoditerium or a tepidarium.


Room 07 in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room 07 was on the second lower floor. It was to the east of room 06 and entered from it through a narrow doorway in the center of the west wall. The decoration, at least in the semicircular niche in the south wall, was in the Fourth Style (Mau 1887:134). It consisted of a red and yellow ground and a shell painted in blue, red, and white. The pavement was in white mosaic, but it had been destroyed (Mau 1887:133).

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

This room had a recess in the north wall reportedly for a bath and a painted apse in the south wall.

Interpretations of room:

Mau (1887:134) identified this room as a caldarium. Notably, no bath was recorded here (see bath complexes in the Casa del Menandro and Casa di Trebius Valens) and the pavement had been destroyed.


Room 08 in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Room 08 (figure D.219) was on the second lower floor. It was a circular room on the west side of room 06 and entered from it through a narrow doorway in the center of the east wall. The walls were decorated with white plaster and a blue frieze of animals. There is no record or visible evidence of the pavement.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

Four recesses around the walls of this circular room reportedly had wooden seats.

Interpretations of room:

Mau (1887:134) identified this room as a frigidarium.


Upper Levels in Casa di Giuseppe II

Description of room:

Stairway n and the evidence of another stairway in room e indicate upper-story rooms, probably on both sides of the front hall.

Condition of volcanic deposit:

No stratigraphical information.

Summary of Finds and Fixtures Distribution:

Reported but unprovenanced finds from the ground floor included two bone hinges, fourteen inscribed amphorae, two ceramic vessels, a bronze key, and fragments of gilded metal. In rooms to the south of the ground floor were found two bronze statuettes-one of Jupiter and one of Harpocrates. A glazed ceramic patera (possibly terra sigillata) and a small jug were reportedly from the upper floor, and the bronze foot of a statuette was found in the volcanic deposit.

Interpretations of room:

Noack and Lehmann-Hartleben (1936:29) noted evidence of an upper story above VIII 2, 38 constructed after the Fourth Style decoration phase. The lack of proper provenances for the finds makes drawing conclusions from them difficult. The statuary may have been moved from the garden during the eruption, but the discoveries of dislocated and fragmentary statuary in other parts of the houses suggest that they could have been moved during an earlier disruption. The amphorae indicate domestic or possibly industrial storage during the final occupation