Personal names and prosopographical links

2017-12-12

Tagging of names, person references, and links to prosopographical disambiguation.

Personal names in the text may be tagged using the <persName> element.

<persName>Amias Olympias</persName>

TEI includes several elements for marking up the individual subparts of a personal name, including <forename>, <surname>, <addName>, <genName> and <roleName>. Most EpiDoc projects however have decided that these do not unproblematically map onto the nomenclature of Greek and Roman antiquity, or other cultures whose documentary texts are being encoded, and so the more generic element <name> has been used to encode the individual names within a complete person reference. The type attribute on <name> may be used to specify the class of name.

<persName type="attested">
 <name type="praenomen">
  <expan>
   <abbr>Q</abbr>
   <ex>uinto</ex>
  </expan>
 </name>
 <name type="gentilicium">Flauio</name>
 <name type="cognomen">Hiceto</name>
</persName>
(IRT: 95)

The recommended usage of type on <persName>, as applied in projects using the London style (IAph, IRT, IRCyr, IOSPE), inlcudes five values:

<persName type="attestedref="#person138">
 <name>Θεωδόρου</name>
</persName>

Just as the lemmata of words may be recorded to facilitate indexing or searching, names may be linked to their nominative-singular form (or similar in other languages). No lemma attribute is available on <name> or <persName>, however, so the more involved attribute nymRef should be used instead. This attribute can be used to link the instance of a name in text to a corresponding <nym> element that provides additional information about orthography, primary reference form (e.g., nominative singular), etc. Best practice is to develop a separate xml file in which the <nym> elements are encoded, usually inside a <nymList>. The following examples assume the existence of such a separate file (nametable.xml) and generally make use of the nominative form of the name as the linking value, appearing after the hash (#) character in nymRef and without hash or other prefix in the xml:id on the corresponding <nym>. More information on the extensive options available for describing the name and its forms inside the <nym> element may be found in the TEI Guidelines section "13.3.5 Names and Nyms". Note that the nymRef attribute links to information about the standard form of a name, not to the unique person to whom a name instance refers (on which see below).

<persName type="emperor">
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Marcus"
  type="praenomen">

  <expan>
   <abbr>M</abbr>
   <ex>arco</ex>
  </expan>
 </name>
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Aurellius"
  type="gentilicium">
Aurellio</name>
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Antoninus"
  type="gentilicium">
Antonino</name>
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Pius"
  type="cognomen">
Pio</name>
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Felix"
  type="cognomen">
Felici</name>
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Augustus"
  type="cognomen">

  <expan>
   <abbr>Aug</abbr>
   <ex>usto</ex>
  </expan>
 </name>
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Parthicus"
  type="cognomen">
Parthico</name>
 <w lemma="magnus">maximo</w>
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Britannicus"
  type="cognomen">
Britanico</name>
 <w lemma="magnus">maximo</w>
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Germanicus"
  type="cognomen">
Germanico</name>
</persName>
(IRT: 941)
<persName type="divinekey="ststephen">
 <roleName>
  <w lemma="ἅγιος">ἁγήου</w>
 </roleName>
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Στέφανος">Στεφάνου</name>
</persName>
<persName type="other">
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Ἀνχίσης">Ἀνχίσου</name>
</persName>
(InsAph: 9.35)

A personal name of an attested individual, including cognomina but not "Imperator", shoud be tagged as a <name>. An imperial cognomen such as "Sarmaticus" should be tagged as a name. The element <name> cannot take part, so in the case of an incomplete name, a <seg> element needs to appear inside the <name>.

Where a personal name string includes a patronymic, or other references to people such as adoptive father, husband, owner/patron etc., a further <persName> element may be nested inside the first, such that, for example, "Apollonios son of Adrastos" is identified as one person, while his father "Adrastos" is another.

Individual persons may also identified by a ref attribute containing a URL or other URI pointing to an entry in a person database or online prosopography (see further Indexing and controlling persons and names).

<persName ref="prosopography.xml#p128">
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Εὔμαχος">Εὔμαχος</name>
 <persName ref="prosopography.xml#p129">
  <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Ἀθηνάγορας">Ἀθηναγόρου</name>
  <w>τοῦ</w>
  <persName ref="prosopography.xml#p130">
   <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Ἀθηνάγορας">Ἀθηναγόρου</name>
   <w>τοῦ</w>
   <persName ref="prosopography.xml#p131">
    <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Εὔμαχος">Εὐμάχου</name>
   </persName>
  </persName>
 </persName>
 <name nymRef="nametable.xml#Διογένης">Διογένης</name>
</persName>
(InsAph: 1.4)

See also:

Other pages describing <persName>:

Other pages describing <name>:

Responsibility for this section

  1. Simona Stoyanova, author
  2. Gabriel Bodard, author

EpiDoc version: 9.0

Date: 2017-12-12