Book Thirteen

For the trinitarian structure of the last three books, see on the beginning of Bk. 11. Bk. 13 is devoted to the third person of the trinity: as Bk. 11 balanced the eternity of God and the temporality of humanity, and Bk. 12 set the unity and clarity of the Word side by side with the plurality and ambiguity of the words through which we approach the Word - the two together showing God and mankind drawing closer, Bk. 13 therefore embodies the dynamic union with God under the action of the Spirit in the world. Alone of the last three books, it has a structure that clearly reflects the exegetical purpose. The verse-by-verse exegesis of Genesis makes progress.

  • Invocation
  • 13.2.2 - 13.11.12
  • Why did God create?
  • 13.3.4 - 13.4.5
  • False explanations discarded
  • 13.5.6 - 13.11.12
  • The third person of the trinity: the spirit and will of God
  • 13.12.13 - 13.30.45
  • Allegorical exposition of Gn.
  • 13.12.13 - 13.14.15
  • The First Day
  • 13.15.16 - 13.16.19
  • The Second Day
  • 13.17.20 - 13.17.21
  • The Third Day
  • 13.18.22 - 13.19.25
  • The Fourth Day
  • 13.20.26 - 13.20.28
  • The Fifth Day
  • 13.21.29 - 13.30.45
  • The Sixth Day
  • 13.21.29 - 13.21.31
  • Creation of the Animals
  • 13.22.32 - 13.27.42
  • Creation of Humanity in God's Image and Likeness
  • 13.28.43 - 13.30.45
  • `And God saw that it was very good' (against the Manichees)
  • 13.31.46 - 13.34.49
  • Summary of Exegesis (Literal, then Allegorical)
  • 13.35.50 - 13.38.53
  • Conclusion: The Seventh Day
  • On this book as a whole, see A. Holl, Die Welt der Zeichen bei Augustin: religionsphänomenologische Analyse des 13. Buches der Confessiones (Vienna, 1963), rightly complaining at 13 of the `verhältnismäßig stiefmütterliche Behandlung' of this book in the scholarly literature; a lengthy methodological preface does not lead to dramatic results. See also F. Cayré, REAug 2(1956), 143-161;1 on the Genesis exegesis here, see E. TeSelle, RA 5(1968), 95-137, with investigation into the place of the doctrine propounded in A.'s exegesis of Gn. in the history of his theological development and interesting discussion of the place of Plotinian influence in the making of ideas that would later loom large in the Pelagian controversies; for a good sketch of the place of the interpretation given here of Genesis in the series of essays on that subject that A. wrote, see A. Solignac, in the collective volume In Principio (Paris, 1973), 153-71; for a challenging philosophical assessment of A.'s contribution here, see V. Goldschmidt, in études sur l'histoire de la philosophie en hommage à Martial Gueroult (Paris, 1964), 15-43. For comparison of approaches of Gn. litt. and conf., see further BA 48.581-584.

    Text of Genesis 1.1 - 2.2

    This text reconstructs hypothetically what A. had before him at the time of conf., drawing upon the app. crit. to the VL (Beuron) ed. of Genesis and upon citations and echoes in conf. (1.1) in principio fecit deus caelum et terram. (2) terra invisibilis erat et incomposita, et tenebrae erant super abyssum. et spiritus dei superferebatur super aquas. (3) et dixit deus, `fiat lux,' et facta est lux. (4) et vidit deus lucem quia bona est. et divisit deus inter lucem et tenebras. (5) et vocavit deus lucem diem et tenebras vocavit noctem, et facta est vespera et factum est mane, dies unus. (6) et dixit deus, `fiat firmamentum in medio aquarum, et sit divisio inter aquam et aquam,' et sic est factum. (7) et fecit deus firmamentum, et divisit deus inter aquam quae erat sub firmamento et inter aquam quae erat supra firmamento, (8) et vocavit deus firmamentum caelum. et vidit deus quia bonum est. et facta est vespera et factum est mane, dies secundus. (9) et dixit deus, `congregetur aqua quae est sub caelo in congregationem unam ut appareat arida,' et factum est sic. et congregata est aqua quae erat sub caelo in congregationem suam et apparuit arida, (10) et vocavit deus aridam terram, et congregationem aquae vocavit mare. et vidit deus quia bonum est. (11) et dixit deus, `germinet terra herbam pabuli 2 ferentem semen secundum suum genus et secundum similitudinem, et lignum fructiferum 3 faciens fructum, cuius semen sit in se secundum suam similitudinem,' et sic est factum. (12) et eiecit terra herbam pabuli 4 ferentem semen secundum suum genus, et lignum fructuosum faciens fructum, cuius semen est in se secundum suam similitudinem. et vidit deus quia bonum est. (13) et facta est vespera et factum est mane, dies tertius. (14) et dixit deus, `fiant luminaria in firmamento caeli, ita ut luceant super terram et dividant inter diem et noctem, et sint in signa et tempora et in dies et annos, (15) et sint in splendorem in firmamento caeli, sic ut luceant super terram,' et sic est factum. (16) et fecit deus duo luminaria magna, luminare maius in inchoationem diei, et luminare minus in inchoationem noctis et stellas, (17) et posuit illa deus in firmamento caeli, ut luceant super terram, (18) et praesint diei et nocti, et dividant inter diem et noctem. et vidit deus quia bonum est. (19) et facta est vespera et factum est mane, dies quartus. (20) et dixit deus, `producant aquae reptilia animarum viventium secundum genus, et volatilia volantia super terram secundum firmamentum caeli secundum genus,' et sic est factum. (21) et fecit deus cetos magnos, et omnem animam animalium repentium quae eduxerunt aquae secundum genus eorum, et omne volatile pennatum secundum genus. et vidit deus quia bona sunt. (22) et benedixit ea deus dicens, `crescite et multiplicamini et implete aquas maris, et volatilia multiplicentur super terram,' et sic est factum. (23) et facta est vespera et factum est mane, dies quintus. (24) et dixit deus,` eiciat 5 terra animam vivam 6 secundum 7 genus, quadrupedia et reptilia et bestias terrae secundum genus, et pecora secundum genus,' et sic est factum. (25) et fecit deus bestias terrae secundum genus, et pecora secundum genus, et omnia reptilia terrae secundum genus. et vidit deus quia bona sunt. (26) et dixit deus, `faciamus hominem ad imaginem et similitudinem nostram, et dominetur piscium maris et volatilium caeli et omnium pecorum et omnis terrae et omnium repentium quae repunt super terram.' (27) et fecit deus hominem ad imaginem dei; masculum et feminam fecit eos. (28) et benedixit eos deus dicens, `crescite et multiplicamini et inplete terram et dominamini eius, et principamini piscium maris et volatilium caeli et omnium pecorum terrae et omnium reptilium quae repunt super terram.' (29) et dixit deus, `ecce dedi vobis omne pabulum seminale seminans semen quod est super omnem terram, et omne lignum fructiferum quod habet in se fructum seminis seminalis vobis erit ad escam, (30) et omnibus bestiis terrae et omnibus volatilibus caeli et omni reptili repenti super terram quod habet in se animam vitae et omne pabulum viride in escam,' et factum est sic. (31) et vidit deus omnia quae fecit et ecce bona valde. et facta est vespera et factum est mane, dies sextus. (2.1) et consummata sunt caelum et terra et omnis ornatus illorum. (2) et consummavit deus in die sexto opera sua quae fecit, et requievit deus die septimo ab omnibus operibus suis quae fecit. et benedixit deus diem septimum et sanctificavit eum, quia in ipso requievit ab omnibus operibus suis quae inchoavit deus facere.

    text of 13.1.1


    The whole of conf. elucidates and deals with the amazement of contingent being. ~ The discovery that his own being is not necessary leads to the recognition of an antecedent esse that is the source and model - `et hoc dicimus deum'.

    invoco . . . praevenisti: See on 1.1.1; invocation seems the place to begin, but human beginnings are preceded by divine ones; at 1.1.1, praedicatio precedes, while here cf. `vocantem me invocarem te'.

    deus meus, misericordia mea: Ps. 58.11ff, `misericordia eius praeveniet me . . .; (18) deus meus, misericordia mea'; en. Ps. 58. s. 1.19, `non ego prior ad te exsurrexi, sed tu ad me excitandum venisti'; en. Ps. 58. s. 2.11, `si aliquid tuum primum attulisti, et ex tuo aliquo bono primo dei misericordiam meruisti, non te praevenit. . . . totum quidquid sum, de misericordia tua est. sed promerui te, invocando te? ut essem, quid feci? ut essem qui te invocarem, quid egi?' Knauer 175-6: `Merkwürdigerweise wird in den Dogmengeschichten [i.e., Harnack, Loofs, Seeberg] nicht darauf Rücksicht genommen, daß doch Erfahrungen, die Augustin selber gemacht hatte, und die ja auch erst zur Ausbildung seiner Gnadenlehre entscheidend beigetragen haben, ihre Bestätigung und Begründung in einem Psalmwort fanden, das für ihn die höchste Autorität als Gottes Wort besaß.'

    oblitum: Adam (13.21.30) and Patricius (2.3.6) are forgetful of God, but not A.: 10.24.35, `nam ex quo didici te, non sum oblitus tui.'

    invoco te in animam meam: See 1.2.2-1.5.6; the problems explored at length there do not raise themselves further here.

    praeparas: Ps. 9.38, `desiderium pauperum exaudivit dominus; praeparationem cordis eorum audivit auris tua'; Prov. 8.35 (VL), `praeparatur voluntas a deo' (the latter verse is never quoted before 411, then abundantly throughout the anti-Pelagian works).

    inspirasti: 1.1.1, `fides mea . . . quam inspirasti mihi'.

    inspirasti ei inspirasti ei Skut.:   inspiras ei G O Maur. Ver.:   inspirasti S Knöll:   inspiras et C D

    praevenisti: Cf. Ps. 58.11, quoted above. en. Ps. 118. s. 5.3, `praeveniens eius adiuvet caritas'; ench. 32.9, `praecedit enim bona voluntas hominis multa dei dona, sed non omnia: quae autem non praecedit ipsa, in eis est et ipsa, nam utrumque legitur in sanctis eloquiis: et “misericordia eius praeveniet me,” et “misericordia eius subsequitur me” [Ps. 22.6]. nolentem praevenit et velit; volentem subsequitur ne frustra velit'; sim. at en. Ps. 18. en. 2.2, 30. en. 2. s. 1.6, s. 176.5.5, pat. 20.17.

    audirem de longinquo: 7.10.16, `et clamasti de longinquo'; the prodigal again: Lk. 15.13, `profectus est in regionem longinquam' (for further final changes rung on that theme, see on 13.2.2, 13.7.8, 13.11.12).

    tu enim tu enim C D G O Maur. Ver.:   etenim S Knöll Skut.

    delevisti . . . quibus me fecisti: The arrangement of clauses here is exactly symmetrical.

    ne retribueres: Ps. 17.21, `et retribuet mihi dominus secundum iustitiam meam, et secundum puritatem manuum mearum retribuet mihi'; en. Ps. 17.21, `et retribuet mihi dominus secundum iustitiam bonae voluntatis, qui prior praebuit misericordiam antequam haberem bonam voluntatem.'

    defeci . . . fecisti: The implication (as noted by BA ad loc.) is that human action without grace is to unmake (de-facere) what God has made.

    manibus tuis: Ps. 118.73, `manus tuae fecerunt me.' Cf. ep. 194.5.19, `cum deus coronat merita nostra, nihil aliud coronet quam munera sua.'

    dominus meus et deus meus: Jn. 20.28, `respondit Thomas et dixit ei, “dominus meus et deus meus!”' (echoed exactly only here; near-misses at 1.11.17, 9.4.12, 9.13.37).

    ut de te . . . cui bene sit: Gn. litt. 8.11.24, `ille quippe nostra servitute non indiget, nos vere dominatione illius indigemus, ut operetur et custodiat nos. et ideo verus solus est dominus, quia non illa ad suam sed ad nostram utilitatem salutemque servimus.'

    text of 13.2.2


    aequale tibi: Phil. 2.6, `non rapinam arbitratus est esse se aequalem deo' (see on 7.9.14); the echo, if felt, suggests just what `equality with God' entails and where it is to be located (see on 7.9.14, `in forma patris').

    promeruit: Cf. en. Ps. 58. s. 2.11, quoted on 13.1.1 and (among many similar passages) en. Ps. 137.5, `his [sc. misericordia et veritate dei] adiuvamur a deo, his promeremur deum.' For fuller details, see on 6.12.21; the verb occurs now 8x in this and the following two paragraphs.

    quas quas C D G O Skut. Ver.:   quae S Knöll Pell.

    spiritalis corporalisque natura: i.e., caelum [= caelum caeli] et terra: the phrase is chosen to suggest the interpretation advanced in Bk. 12.

    quas fecisti in sapientia tua: Ps. 103.24, `quam magnificata sunt opera tua, domine omnia in sapientia fecisti'; also at 11.9.11, 12.17.25, 12.19.28.

    in longinquam dissimilitudinem: Lk. 15.13, `profectus est [sc. prodigalis: see on 1.18.28] in regionem longinquam et ibi dissipavit substantiam suam'; see on 7.10.16, `regione dissimilitudinis' (and cf. 13.2.3).

    per idem verbum [2] . . . formarentur [2].

    text of 13.2.3


    The belief that the conversio of the fallen creature metaphysically resembles the original formatio of the creature from materia informis is central to A.'s adaptation of Platonism. In both formatio and conversio, the decisive action is that of the second person of the trinity (see on Bk. 8 passim), but in the case of `conversion' the third person of the trinity plays a part so in unison with the second that the two are almost indistinguishable. Bk. 12 has expounded the primordial formatio; the allegorical reading of Gn. proposed in this book sketches the corresponding conversio. (Accordingly, no form of convertere or conversio appears in Bks. 11 or 12; the verb occurs 8x in Bk. 13, the noun only here.) For fuller discussion, see BA 14.613-617, and see at length Gn. litt. 1.4.9-1.5.10, esp. Gn. litt. 1.4.9, `in qua conversione et formatione . . . pro suo modo [1] imitatur deum verbum [2]'; see also Gn. litt. 2.8.16, `inlustratione veritatis, ad quam conversa formata est'; Gn. litt. 4.22.39, `a sua quadam informitate ad creatorem conversa atque formata . . . deus est, cuius contemplatione formatur'; Gn. litt. 7.6.9, `nunc autem mutabilitas eius satis indicat eam interim vitiis atque fallaciis deformem reddi, formari autem virtutibus veritatisque doctrina'.

    promeruit: See on 13.2.2.

    fecisti fecisti O S Knöll Skut. Ver.:    fecisti eam C D G Maur.

    quamvis non aequaliter: See on 13.22.32.

    conformis formae [2] aequali tibi: Rom. 8.29, `nam quos praescivit et praedestinavit conformes fieri imaginis filii eius' (and another echo of Phil. 2.6 [see on 13.2.2]).

    esse [1] . . . pulchrum esse [2].

    haerere tibi: Ps. 72.28, `mihi autem adhaerere deo bonum est'; see on 7.11.17. Knauer 104n2 suggests the `semper' half-invokes Mt. 18.10, `angeli . . . in caelis semper vident faciem patris mei', which is otherwise often evoked in connection with Ps. 72.28.

    haerere haerere C D G O Skut. Ver.:   adhaerere S Knöll
    Knauer ibid. accepts adhaerere, arguing that haerere is used by A. in no citation or echo of Ps. 72.28, though in-, co- (13.3.4), and adhaerere all occur. According to the appendix to Skut. ed. 1969, however, adhaerere does not even occur in Vindob. 712 lat. (saec. XI: MS W in Knöll, and cf. Skutella [1969] 383), otherwise a virtual clone of S, and cf. 4.4.7, `inter haerentes tibi caritate diffusa in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum', and 4.14.23, `ecce ubi iacet anima infirma nondum haerens solidae veritatis.'

    aversione: `Aversion' also at 2.1.1 and 4.16.31.

    fuimus aliquando tenebrae: Eph. 5.8, `eratis enim aliquando tenebrae, nunc autem lux in domino' : a leit-motif of Bk. 13. Already echoed clearly at 8.10.22 and 9.4.10, the phrase emerges (often in connection with other scriptural texts) at 13.8.9, 13.10.11, 13.12.13, 13.14.15: as Knauer 124n6 rightly says, it is `im 13. Buche vor allem als das neutestamentliche Gegenbild zu gen. 1,3 (“fiat lux”).'

    reliquiis obscuritatis: vera rel. 27.50, `veteris hominis sui reliquias'; cf. 11.2.2, `primordia inluminationis tuae et reliquias tenebrarum mearum'. BA ad loc. blurs the issue by saying that the reliquiae (the opposite of the primitiae spiritus of 9.10.24 and 12.16.23, recurring at 13.13.14) are both the traces of original unformed-ness and the consequences of sin. By juxtaposing these two while distinguishing them, A. makes the text of Gn. 1 tell literally of the formatio of created informis materia, but allegorically of the conversio of the fallen creature.

    donec simus iustitia tua . . . sicut montes dei: 2 Cor. 5.21, `eum qui non noverat peccatum pro nobis peccatum fecit, ut nos simus iustitia dei in ipso' (for text, see on 12.15.20); Ps. 35.7, `iustitia tua sicut montes dei, iudicia tua sicut abyssus multa'; en. Ps. 35.9, `qui sunt montes dei? qui dicti sunt nubes, ipsi sunt et montes dei: magni praedicatores, montes dei. et quomodo, quando oritur sol, prius luce montes vestit, et inde lux ad humillima terrarum descendit, sic quando venit dominus noster Iesus Christus, prius radiavit in altitudinem apostolorum, prius inlustravit montes, et sic descendit lux eius ad convallem terrarum.'

    text of 13.3.4


    fiat lux: Gn. 1.3, `et dixit deus “fiat lux,” et facta est lux' (echoed here for the first time in conf.).

    eique cohaerendo: Ps. 72.28, `adhaerere deo' (see on 13.2.3).

    vivit [1] . . . beate vivit [3]: Cf. `aliud vivere . . .' below.

    conversa: See on 13.2.3. See E. TeSelle, RA 5(1968), 115-123, detecting in the conf. exposition a new emphasis on `the gratuity of beatitude' (and specifically on the double gratuity: that God first creates and then perfects) and hence an important stage in the development of A.'s ideas.

    solus simpliciter es: See on 2.6.13.

    cui non est aliud vivere: Gn. litt. 1.5.10, `cui non solum hoc est esse quod vivere, sed etiam hoc est ei vivere, quod est sapienter ac beate vivere'.

    text of 13.4.5


    convertens ad formam: See on 13.2.3.

    perfecto . . . imperfecto: Adjectives with `tibi'. On the perfection of creature, see on 10.30.42.

    spiritus . . . tuus bonus: Ps. 142.10, `spiritus tuus bonus deducet me in terram rectam' (see on 12.32.43); Gn. 1.2, `et spiritus dei superferebatur super aquas'. Gn. litt. 1.5.11-1.7.13 discusses the question whether this spirit is God or creature, concluding in favor of the former; the question had some currency, for it recurred in (and was answered with quotation from Gn. litt.) at Dulc. qu. 8.

    requiesceret: The yearning for repose runs through conf. (see on 1.1.1) and esp. Bk. 13 (first here, frequent throughout, culminating at 13.38.53). Num. 11.25, `cumque requievisset in eis spiritus, prophetaverunt, nec ultra cessaverunt'; Is. 11.2-3 (the seven gifts of the spirit), `et requiescet super eum spiritus domini, spiritus sapientiae et intellectus, spiritus consilii et fortitudinis, spiritus scientiae et pietatis, (3) et replebit eum spiritus timoris domini'; Is. 66.2 (in an idiosyncratic version that departs from both LXX and Vg.), `super quem requiescet spritus meus, nisi super humilem et quietum et trementem verba mea?' (cited at en. Ps. 73.24, 92.6, 103. s. 2.10, 103. s. 4.16, 131.4); in NT, 1 Pet. 4.14, `si exprobramini in nomine Christi, beati eritis; quoniam quod est honoris, gloriae, et virtutis dei, et qui est eius spiritus, super vos requiescit.'

    voluntas tua: = spiritus sanctus, as the context proves beyond a doubt; cf. 13.11.12, `esse, nosse, velle'.

    sufficiens [3]: Cf. 12.15.19, 13.8.9, `cui nullo modo sufficit ad beatam requiem', and esp. 13.11.12, `quo est [1] et sibi notum est [2] et sibi sufficit [3] incommutabiliter'.

    apud fontem vitae . . . lumen: Ps. 35.10, `quoniam apud te fons vitae in lumine tuo videbimus lumen'; see on 3.8.16 and cf. 13.16.19, `fons vitae'. N.B. `magis magisque': conversion as continuing process (`a lingering-out sweet skill': G. M. Hopkins), not once-for-all lightning stroke.

    perfici [1] et inlustrari [2] et beari [3]. No exact parallel, but cf. civ. 11.24, `nam si quaeratur unde sit: deus eam condidit; si unde sapiens: a deo inluminatur; si unde sit felix: deo fruitur; subsistens modificatur, contemplans inlustratur, inhaerens iucundatur; est, videt, amat; in aeternitate dei viget, in veritate dei lucet, in bonitate dei gaudet'; civ. 8.5, `platonicis philosophis cedant (!), qui verum deum et rerum auctorem et veritatis inlustratorem et beatitudinis largitorem esse dixerunt'; civ. 8.10, `isti deo cognito reppererunt ubi esset et causa constitutae universitatis, et lux percipiendae veritatis, et fons bibendae felicitatis.'

    text of 13.5.6


    Gn. litt. 1.6.12, `ut, quemadmodum in ipso exordio inchoatae creaturae, quae caeli et terrae nomine propter id quod de illa perficiendum erat commemorata est, trinitas insinuatur creatoris (nam dicente scriptura, “in principio fecit deus caelum et terram,” intellegimus patrem in dei nomine et filium in principii nomine, qui non patri sed per se ipsum creatae primitus ac potissimum spiritali creaturae et consequenter etiam universae creaturae principium est, dicente autem scriptura, “et spiritus dei superferebatur super aquam,” completam commemorationem trinitatis agnoscimus), ita et in conversione atque perfectione creaturae, ut rerum species digerantur, eadem trinitas insinuetur, verbum dei scilicet et verbi generator, cum dicitur, “dixit deus”, et sancta bonitas, in qua deo placet quidquid ei pro suae naturae modulo perfectum placet, cum dicitur, “vidit deus quia bonum est.”'

    A. continued to pursue traces of the three persons of the trinity in these OT texts, even to keeping count as he read through Genesis many years later of the number of passages in which the Spirit appeared: At qu. hept. 1.134, on Gn. 41.38, A. notes to that point only Gn. 1.2 (`superferebatur') and 6.3 (`non permanebit spiritus meus in hominibus istis') and 41.38 (`hominem . . . qui habeat spiritum dei in se'); he adds: `nondum tamen legimus “spiritum sanctum.”' At qu. hept. 2.55, he notes a cumulative total of 5x, including Exod. 8.19 and 15.10.

    ecce apparet mihi: Where? In the preceding line and in the scriptural text of Gn. 1.1-2 (see below).

    in aenigmate: 1 Cor. 13.12 (see on 8.1.1).

    trinitas: See on 12.7.7.

    aequalis: Phil. 2.6 (see on 13.2.2).

    aequalis tibi et coaeterna: Cf. Gal. exp. 24, `deitatis aeternitate et aequalitate constante'; cat. rud. 19.33, `verbum patris, aequale et coaeternum patri'; see also trin. 3.10.27 and 15.15.25; on the Nicene doctrine reflected here, see B. Studer, RA 19(1984), 133-154.

    filio tuo: The link between filius and principium is now reiterated; filius has not been used of the second person since 11.29.39; already at 11.9.11 a series of equivalences made the link explicit, and it is implicit elsewhere (11.6.8). Otherwise since 10.1.1, this way of evoking the incarnation has been little used (see only 10.43.69, 11.2.4). Filius now occurs 3x in this paragraph, then 6x over the next dozen paragraphs.

    caelo caeli: Ps. 113.24(16), `caelum caeli' (see on 12.2.2).

    deliquia: G-M: `downflowing,' from deliquo; cf. Prudentius, hamart. 750-1, `sed nulla ex fluido plenae dispendia formae sentit deliquio'; Souter defines as `melting' and adds refs. to Hil. Pict. in psalm. 147.7 (of melting snow) and Hier. in Esaiam 14.51.6 (of dissolving salt), but cf. 5.5.9, `deliquia luminum', of eclipses (as at, e.g., Plin. n. h. 2.54); these are the only two occurrences in all of A. TLL takes this occurrence as `latiore sensu' with reference to the earlier one, but attests such a usage only here. The exact sense is probably irrecoverable; note that the verb adduced by G-M is only archaic or technical; A. uses deliquesco, also rare but attested in Ovid and Cicero, 1x only at en. Ps. 147.26; and that the equally rare noun deliquio is also attested both for `lack, deficiency' (Plaut. capt. 626) and for `eclipse' (in the fragmentary second cent. BC annalist Cn. Gellius, who attests both deliquio and deliquium for `eclipse' in the same passage). The resemblance to the perfect forms from delinquo may have subconsciously affected A.'s use.

    inluminatione [2] . . . speciosa [2].

    postea: Gn. 1.6, `“et sit divisio inter aquam et aquam,” et sic est factum.'

    tenebam: Here not `memorized' (see on 1.13.20), but `grasped mentally, understood' (OLD s.v. #23).

    ecce trinitas: Reading Gn. 1.2 shows A. the presence of the Spirit, and with that phrase all three persons of the trinity have been designated by the scriptural text.

    text of 13.6.7


    On the surface, this is a discussion of why mention of the Spirit is postponed in the scriptural narrative; at the same time, it emphasizes that it is here - early Bk. 13 - that the spirit becomes the object of A.'s exegesis, indeed the thematic object of all Bk. 13.

    veridicum: `true-speaking' in a wide variety of contexts (3.4.7, 9.12.32, 11.26.33); here, the light that speaks truth, but at 12.18.27 (`lux omnium veridicarum mentium') the light that gives our minds the possibility of speaking truth. Cf. Jn. 1.9, `lumen verum' (cf. in this book 13.24.36, `lumen meum veritas').

    tenebras: See on 13.2.3, `fuimus aliquando tenebrae'.

    dic mihi . . . dic mihi: 1.6.9, `dic mihi . . . dic mihi'.

    matrem caritatem [3]: caritas = Spirit, e.g. trin. 6.5.7, `quapropter etiam spiritus sanctus in eadem unitate substantiae et aequalitate consistit. sive enim sit unitas amborum sive sanctitas sive caritas sive ideo unitas quia caritas et ideo caritas quia sanctitas . . .' (sim. at trin. 15.17.29); the identification is made in A. from mor. 1.13.23 (see on 13.7.8, `caritas tua'). (See BA 15.587: The theology that makes the spirit the bond, the love, of Father and Son, is A.'s. The Greeks have the Father make the unity of the trinity, and the Son the bond between Father and Spirit.)

    For the `motherhood of God', cf. cat. rud. 15.23, `et quia cum eadem omnibus debeatur caritas, non eadem est omnibus adhibenda medicina: ipsa item caritas alios parturit, cum aliis infirmatur; alios curat aedificare, alios contremiscit offendere; ad alios se inclinat, ad alios se erigit; aliis blanda, aliis severa, nulli inimica, omnibus mater'; sim. at Io. ep. tr. 2.4, en. Ps. 147.14.

    text of 13.7.8


    qui potest intellectu: Cf. 12.29.40, `qui potest intellegat'.

    caritas tua . . . nobis: Rom. 5.5, `spes autem non confundit, quia caritas dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per spirtum sanctum qui datus est nobis' (also echoed at 4.4.7 and 13.31.46). First in A. at mor. 1.13.23, tied up with his identification of caritas and the spirit; on this verse, see A.-M. La Bonnardière, Aug. Mag. 2.657-665.

    et de spiritalibus: 1 Cor. 12.1, `de spiritalibus autem, fratres, nolo vos ignorare'.

    demonstrantem supereminentem viam: 1 Cor. 12.31, `adhuc supereminentem viam vobis demonstro' (text from en. Ps. 71.18): en. Ps. 103. s. 1.9, `quam dicit supereminentiorem viam? si linguis hominum loquar et angelorum, caritatem autem non habeam, factus sum velut aeramentum sonans, aut cymbalum tinniens. si ergo nihil supereminentius in scriptura sancta inveniri potest quam caritas superiora caeli quomodo in aquis proteguntur, si superiora scripturae praecepta caritatis sunt? audi quemadmodum, “caritas”, inquit, “dei diffusa . . .”'; en. Ps. 141.7, `ergo caritatem dixit supereminentiorem viam.'

    flectentem genua: Cf. perhaps Eph. 3.14, `huius rei gratia flecto genua mea ad patrem.'

    supereminentem scientiam: Eph. 3.19, `scire etiam supereminentem scientiae caritatem Christi'; A.'s texts waffle between `scientiae caritatem' (e.g., en. Ps. 118. s. 14.4) and `scientiam caritatis' (e.g., here and en. Ps. 8.5), unconsciously, with no differentiation of meaning.

    pondere cupiditatis: A metaphor brings with it difficulties of interpretation; the moment of (ostensible) doubt leads to a resolution of those difficulties in an enhancement of metaphor; the metaphor of weight is linked to amor at 13.9.10. Cupiditas is the natural antonym of caritas for A.: doctr. chr. 3.10.15, `non autem praecipit scriptura nisi caritatem, nec culpat nisi cupiditatem'.

    defluens: See on 2.2.4 and cf. 2.10.18, 10.29.40, 12.10.10, and 3x at 13.8.9.

    sursum cor: See on 12.16.23, `sursum corde'; here we have both halves of the liturgical exchange, `sursum cor' and `habemus ad dominum.'

    cum pertransierit anima nostra aquas: Ps. 123.5, `fortasse pertransiit anima nostra aquam sine substantia'; en. Ps. 123.9, `quae est aqua sine substantia nisi aqua peccatorum sine substantia? peccata enim non habent substantiam; inopiam habent, non substantiam; egestatem habent, non substantiam. in ista aqua sine substantia perdidit ille minor filius [sc. prodigalis!] totam substantiam suam. . . . considerent ergo omnes peccata sua, videant si habent substantiam ipsa peccata.'

    text of 13.8.9


    defluxit: See on 13.7.8.

    oboediens: Elsewhere in conf. of humankind (1.10.16), of Christ (7.9.14), and of civil society as a model for the cosmos (3.8.15)

    caelum caeli: Ps. 113.24(16): see on 12.2.2.

    nunc autem lux est in domino: Eph. 5.8, `eratis enim aliquando tenebrae, nunc autem lux in domino'; see on 13.2.3.

    sufficit: To the insufficiency of creature is contrasted the self-sufficiency of God: see on 13.4.5, and cf. 13.11.12, `trinitas . . . sibi sufficit'. civ. 22.1, `nam sicut caecitas oculi vitium est et idem ipsum indicat ad lumen videndum oculum esse creatum, . . . ita natura quae fruebatur deo optimam se institutam docet etiam ipso suo vitio quo ideo misera est quia non fruitur deo.'

    inluminabis tenebras nostras: Ps. 17.29, `quoniam tu inluminabis lucernam meam, deus meus, inluminabis tenebras meas'; see on 11.25.32. Here also an implicit link to 13.2.3, `fuimus aliquando tenebrae' (Eph. 5.8: see also just above).

    vestimenta: qu. ev. 2.13 (ad Lk. 8.26ff), `quod sine vestimento erat, non habebat fidem' (i.e., the baptismal garment, sign of the presence of the spirit). en. Ps. 103. s. 1.7, `ipsa est vestis eius, de qua iam dixi, “non habens maculam, neque rugam.” [Eph. 5.27] lux vocatur; et hoc iam dixi: “fuistis aliquando tenebrae, nunc autem lux in domino.” [Eph. 5.8] . . . quomodo fecerit hoc, ut indueret se sicut vestimentum lucem ecclesiam, enumerare vult figuratis quibusdam sacramentis; quomodo lux facta sit ecclesia, quomodo facta sit sine macula et ruga, quomodo facta sit candida, dealbata, fulgens in vestitu sponsi sui, inhaerens illi, quomodo facta sit audiamus' (v. sim. at en. Ps. 103. s. 2.2). Cf. Ps. 103.6, `abyssus sicut vestimentum amictus ipsius'; en. Ps. 103. s. 2.6, `ergo si deus luce vestitus est, cuius rursum vestimentum est abyssus? . . . fortasse ipsum tempus significavit iste psalmus, cum diceret, abyssus sicut vestimentum amictus ipsius.'

    et tenebrae nostrae: Is. 58.10, `et tenebrae tuae erunt sicut meridies'; cf. other echoes at 10.5.7 and 12.15.21.

    amplexus tuos: See on 2.2.3, `felicior expectarem amplexus tuos'.

    donec abscondatur: Ps. 30.21, `abscondes eos in abscondito vultus tui'; en. Ps. 30. en. 2 s. 3.8, `vilescat totum quidquid praeter deum est. qui nos tuetur in loco vitae huius, ipse post istam vitam sit locus noster. . . . in abscondito vultus tui non conturbantur.' Col. 3.3, `mortui enim estis et vita vestra abscondita est cum Christo in deo'; 1 Cor. 4.5, `et inluminabit abscondita tenebrarum et tunc laus erit unicuique a deo.' en. Ps. 139.17, `ergo pauperes sumus, abscondita est vita nostra; clamemus ad panem; est enim panis vivus qui de caelo descendit [Jn. 6.41]; et qui in via reficit nos, in patria saturabit nos.'

    egestas: See on 2.10.18, `et factus sum mihi regio egestatis.'

    text of 13.9.10


    BA 14.618, `A notre connaissance, Augustin est le premier à fournir les éléments d'une doctrine chrétienne de l'amour: en tout cas, il ne dépend sur ce point ni de Plotin, ni d'Ambroise, les deux grands maîtres de sa pensée.' There has been controversy over the congruence between his doctrine and that of the NT (denying, A. Nygren, Agape and Eros [London, 1932]; defending, J. Burnaby, Amor Dei [London, 1938]), and there is a standard treatment by Gilson (The Christian Philosophy of Saint Augustine [New York, 1967], 132-42). Of all A.'s works, none so concentrates on the subject as Io. ep. tr. (reflecting the contents of the epistle), on which see P. Agaësse's introduction to his edition and translation in SC 75.31-102, and D. Dideberg, Saint Augustin et la première épitre de saint Jean (Paris, 1975).

    Note the rapid succession of short sentences.

    cur ergo tantum . . .: What is characteristic of the third person of the trinity that makes it the appropriate subject for this verb here?

    in dono tuo: Act. 2.38, `et accipietis donum spiritus sancti' (cf. below); trin. 15.18.32, `quocirca rectissime spiritus sanctus, cum sit deus, vocatur etiam donum dei.' First in A. in ep. 11.4, `donum et munus proprie spiritui sancto tribuitur,' and vera rel. 12.24, `per spiritum sanctum, quod est donum dei' (cf. vera rel. 7.13, 55.113); see du Roy 320, tracing A.'s use of the term to Hil. Pict., trin. 11.1 (quoted at A., trin. 6.10.11). The term appears along with munus, but while donum is common in A., munus fades away (du Roy 321: see on 13.38.53, `ex munere tuo').

    fruimur: doctr. chr. 1.4.4, `frui est enim amore inhaerere alicui rei propter se ipsam'; cf. 7.17.23, `frui deo meo'. See R. Lorenz's study at Zschr. für Kirchengesch. 63(1950), 75-132, and 64(1952-3), 34-60; and see du Roy 321-322, with texts as early as ord. 2.2.6 and sol. 1.9.16-1.13.22.

    spiritus tuus bonus: Ps. 142.10 (see on 13.4.5).

    exaltat humilitatem nostram: Ps. 9.14-15, `miserere me, domine, vide humilitatem meam ab inimicis meis, (15) qui exaltas me de portis mortis ut annuntiem universas laudes tuas in portis filiae Sion'; en. Ps. 9.14, `exaltatur enim homo in illo non solum quem gestat, quod caput ecclesiae est, sed etiam quisquis nostrum est in ceteris membris; et exaltatur ab omnibus pravis cupiditatibus, quae sunt portae mortis, quia per illas itur in mortem.'

    in bona voluntate pax nobis est: Lk. 2.14, `et super terram pax in hominibus bonae voluntatis'; s. dom. m. 2.6.21, `ut cum praecesserit bona voluntas nostra, . . . perficiatur in nobis voluntas dei . . . ut nulla adversitas resistat nostrae beatitudini, quod est pax'; adn. Iob on 39.32, `qui autem contradicit deo, quiescere non potest, hoc est, non invenit quietem nisi in eius voluntate sine ulla contradictione consentiat.'

    corpus . . . locum suum: For A.'s version of gravity, see quant. an. 22.37, `lege naturae cedunt pondera minora maioribus, non modo cum ad proprium locum suopte nutu feruntur, ut humida et terrena corpora in ipsius mundi medium locum qui est infimus, rursus aeria et ignea sursum versus, sed etiam cum aliquo tormento aut iactu aut impulsu aut repulsu, eo quo non sponte ferrentur, vi aliena ire coguntur.' Cf. Cic., Tusc. 1.17.40, `reliquae duae partes, una ignea altera animalis, ut illae superiores in medium locum mundi gravitate ferantur et pondere, sic hae rursum rectis lineis in caelestem locum subvolent, sive ipsa natura superiora appetente sive quod a gravioribus leviora natura repellantur. quae cum constent, perspicuum debet esse animos, cum e corpore excesserint, sive illi sint animales, id est spirabiles, sive ignei, sublime ferri.' (Hence the dream of Scipio that closed Cicero's rep.) Cf. Cic., Tusc. 5.24.69, `quaeque ex alio in aliud vicissitudo atque mutatio, unde terra et quibus librata ponderibus, quibus cavernis maria sustineantur, qua omnia delata gravitate medium mundi locum semper expetant, qui est idem infimus in rotundo.'

    minus ordinata [3] inquieta sunt; ordinantur [3] et quiescunt.

    pondus meum amor meus: The association of `weight' with the third person of the trinity stems from the triad implicit in Wisd. 11.21, `omnia in mensura et numero et pondere disposuisti' (see on 5.4.7, and cf. here W. Beierwaltes, REAug 15[1969], 58-61), and often linked to the triad modus/species/ordo (with pondus and ordo interchangeable in discussion of the Wisd. 11.21 triad at, e.g., Gn. c. man. 1.16.26). `Weight' itself is, of course, neutral, hence the word applies to both good and bad kinds of love (as at 10.4.5, pondus contrasted with munus [3]). The classic studies did little to throw light: du Roy (esp. at 421-4) notes the triad from Wisd. 11.21, but gives little attention to pondus; Theiler 45 saw the hand of Porphyry. But D. O'Brien, Studia Patristica 16(1985), 524-7, argues that the notion of the twofold `weight of the soul' derives from Iamblichus (followed by O'Daly 10); the convincing text is Simplicius, cat. 128.32-5 (ed. Kalbfleisch, in CAG 8: quoted by O'Brien 525): kai\ e)n toi=s a)swma/tois de/, fhsi/n (sc. Iamblichus), posoi=s e)nargh\s h( toiau/th diafora/: e)a\n ga/r tis th\n yuxh\n u(po/qhtai w(s kaq' e(auto\ poso/n, h(=| neu/ei ei)s to\ sw=ma r(oph\n e(/cei th\n e)pi\ to ka/tw, h(=| de\ a)po\ tw=n ka/tw pro\s to\ nohto\n neu/ei, e)pi\ to\ a)/nw: i( de\ nou=s a)rrepe\s poso/n. See also R. J. O'Connell, Imagination and Metaphysics in St. Augustine (Milwaukee, 1986), 16ff.

    The notion is fruitfully linked (esp. at trin. 12.11.16) with the Platonic notion of the middle place of the soul, poised between material creation and God, sinking to the one or rising to the other: see on 7.7.11, `media regio salutis meae'. So the ingenious argument at civ. 13.18, `sed necesse est, inquiunt [platonici], ut terrena corpora naturale pondus vel in terra teneat vel cogat ad terram et ideo in caelo esse non possint. . . . quia et ad hoc respondendum est vel propter Christi corpus cum quo ascendit in caelum vel propter sanctorum qualia in resurrectione futura sunt, intueantur paulo attentius pondera ipsa terrena. . . . non itaque nostram fidem redarguunt philosophi de ponderibus corporum. nolo enim quaerere, cur non credant terrenum esse posse corpus in caelo, cum terra universa libretur in nihilo.'

    Two other passages in conf. speak the same language: 4.15.27, `pondere superbiae meae in ima decidebam', and 7.17.23, `rapiebar ad te decore tuo moxque diripiebar abs te pondere meo et ruebam in ista cum gemitu; et pondus hoc consuetudo carnalis.' Before this, the association occurs early and consistently in A.'s work:

    beata v. 4.33 (implicit), `sapientia . . . nihil est enim aliud quam modus animi, . . . quo sese animus librat, ut neque excurrat in nimium neque infra quam plenum est coartetur. . . . cum vero sapientiam contemplatur inventam, cumque, ut huius pueri verbo utar, ad ipsam se tenet, nec se ad simulacrorum fallaciam, quorum pondus amplexus a deo suo cadere atque demergi solet, ulla commotus inanitate convertit, nihil immoderationis, et ideo nihil egestatis, nihil igitur miseriae pertimescit.' Next in order is the earliest explicit testimony, mus. 6.11.29, `non ergo invideamus inferioribus quam nos sumus, nosque ipsos, inter illa quae infra nos sunt et illa quae supra nos sunt, ita deo et domino nostro opitulante ordinemus ut inferioribus non offendamur, solis autem superioribus delectemur. delectatio quippe quasi pondus est animae. delectatio ergo ordinat animam. “ubi enim erit thesaurus tuus, ibi erit et cor tuum”: ubi delectatio, ibi thesaurus: ubi autem cor, ibi beatitudo aut miseria.' It appears in a simile at lib. arb. 3.1.2, `motus quo fruendi voluntatem ad creaturam a creatore convertit. qui motus si culpae deputatur - unde qui dubitat inrisione dignus tibi visus est - non est utique naturalis, sed voluntarius; in eoque similis est illi motui quo deorsum versus lapis fertur, quod sicut iste proprius est lapidis, sic ille animi; verum tamen in eo dissimilis, quod in potestate non habet lapis cohibere motum quo fertur inferius; animus vero dum non vult, non ita movetur.' Otherwise before 400, cf. Gn. c. man. 2.22.34, `pondere malae suae consuetudinis'.

    From around the time of conf.: cat. rud. 19.31 (adumbrating the two cities doctrine), `omnes enim homines amantes superbiam et temporalem dominationem cum vano typho et pompa arrogantiae, omnesque spiritus qui talia diligunt et gloriam suam subiectione hominum quaerunt, simul una societate devincti sunt; et si saepe adversum se pro his rebus dimicant, pari tamen pondere cupiditatis in eandem profunditatem praecipitantur, et sibi morum et meritorum similitudine coniunguntur.' ep. 55.10.18ff, `amant enim requiem, sive piae animae, sive iniquae; sed qua perveniant ad id quod amant, plurimum nesciunt: nec aliquid appetunt etiam ipsa corpora ponderibus suis, nisi quod animae amoribus suis. nam sicut corpus tam diu nititur pondere, sive deorsum versus sive sursum versus, donec ad locum quo nititur veniens conquiescat (pondus quippe olei si dimittatur in aere, deorsum, si autem sub aquis, sursum nititur), sic animae ad ea quae amant propterea nituntur, ut perveniendo requiescant. . . . (21) ad ipsum autem ignem amoris nutriendum et flatandum quodam modo, quo tamquam pondere sursum vel introrsum referamur ad requiem, omnia ista pertinent quae figurate nobis insinuantur; plus enim movent et accendunt amorem, quam si nuda sine ullis sacramentorum similitudinibus ponerentur. cuius rei causam difficile est dicere.'

    After conf. but continuing the line of thought: Gn. litt. 4.3.7-4.5.12, esp. 4.4.8, `pondus voluntatis et amoris, . . . pondus sine pondere est, quo referuntur ut quiescant, quorum quies purum gaudium est, nec illud iam refertur ad aliud'; Gn. litt. 4.18.34, `ut quiescat, id est, ut sui momenti ordinem teneat. . . . sed quia et ipsa corpora non manent in loco, nisi quo sui ponderis tamquam appetitu perveniunt, ut eo conperto requiescant, ideo non incongruenter a corporalibus ad spiritalia verbum transfertur, ut dicatur locus, cum res ipsa plurimum distet'.

    Later: trin. 6.10.12, `haec igitur omnia quae arte divina facta sunt et unitatem [1] quandam in se ostendunt et speciem [2] et ordinem [3]. quidquid enim horum est et unum aliquid est . . . et aliqua specie formatur . . . et ordinem aliquem petit aut tenet, sicut sunt pondera vel conlocationes corporum atque amores aut delectationes animarum'; trin. 8.2.3, `ecce in ipso primo ictu quo velut coruscatione perstringeris, cum dicitur, veritas, mane si potes: sed non potes; relaberis in ista solita atque terrena. quo tandem pondere, quaeso, relaberis, nisi sordium contractarum cupiditatis visco et peregrinationis erroribus'; and cf. trin. 11.11.18 (quoted on 5.4.7). So esp. en. Ps. 29. en. 2.10 (414/15),8 `pondera gemina sunt. pondus enim est impetus quidam cuiusque rei, velut conantis ad locum suum; hoc est pondus. fers lapidem manu, pateris pondus; premit manum tuam, quia locum suum quaerit. et vis videre quid quaerat? subtrahe manum, venit ad terram, quiescit in terra; pervenit quo tendebat, invenit locum suum. pondus ergo illud motus erat quasi spontaneus, sine anima, sine sensu. sunt alia quae sursum versus petunt locum. namque si aquam mittas super oleum, pondere suo in ima tendit. locum enim suum quaerit, ordinari quaerit; quia praeter ordinem est aqua super oleum. donec ergo veniat ad ordinem suum, inquietus motus est, donec teneat locum suum. contra, oleum funde sub aqua, verbi gratia, quemadmodum si vas olei cadat in aquam, in abyssum, in mare, et frangatur, non se patitur oleum subter. . . . rebus ergo ad ima tendentibus in imo ponitur fundamentum; ecclesia vero dei in imo posita tendit in caelum. fundamentum ergo nostrum ibi positum est, dominus noster Iesus Christus sedens ad dexteram patris.' (The same thought more briefly at ss. 337.4.4 [n. d. but early?], and 362.8.8 [410/11].)

    Most impressively apposite to many themes of conf. is civ. 11.28, `si essemus lapides aut fluctus aut ventus aut flamma vel quid huius modi, sine ullo quidem sensu atque vita, non tamen nobis deesset quasi quidam nostrorum locorum atque ordinis appetitus. nam velut amores corporum momenta sunt ponderum, sive deorsum gravitate sive sursum levitate nitantur. ita enim corpus pondere, sicut animus amore fertur, quocumque fertur. quoniam igitur homines sumus ad nostri creatoris imaginem creati [13.22.32], cuius est vera aeternitas, aeterna veritas, aeterna et vera caritas [7.10.16], estque ipse aeterna et vera et cara trinitas neque confusa neque separata: in his quidem rebus quae infra nos sunt, quoniam et ipsa nec aliquo modo [1] essent nec aliqua specie [2] continerentur nec aliquem ordinem [3] vel appeterent vel tenerent, nisi ab illo facta essent, qui summe est [1], qui summe sapiens est [2], qui summe bonus est [3], tamquam per omnia, quae fecit mirabili stabilitate, currentes quasi quaedam eius alibi magis, alibi minus impressa vestigia conligamus; in nobis autem ipsis eius imaginem contuentes [see on 11.20.26, `contuitus'] tamquam minor ille evangelicus filius [see on 1.18.28] ad nosmet ipsos reversi surgamus et ad illum redeamus, a quo peccando recesseramus.' Cf. civ. 11.16, `quoddam veluti pondus voluntatis et amoris'; civ. 19.12, `et quod terrenum corpus in terram nititur et vinculo quo suspensum est renititur, in suae pacis ordinem tendit et locum quo requiescat quodam modo voce ponderis poscit'; civ. 22.11, `ex ponderibus atque ordine elementorum'. Sim. at en. Ps. 77.24 (414/16) and ep. 157.2.9; the last occurrence is probably s. 344.1 (428 or later), `et horum duorum [sc. amorum, i.e., amor saeculi et amor dei] qui vicerit, illuc amantem tamquam pondere trahit.'

    Cf. Greg. Mag., mor. 3.16.31, `quia vero cum recte diligimus, nil in rebus conditis anima nostra carius amamus; et sicut animam nos eos diligere dicimus, quibus amoris nostri exprimere pondus conamur.'

    ascendimus ascensiones in corde: Ps. 83.6, `ascensiones in corde eius disposuit, in convalle plorationis' (text from en. Ps. 119.1; at en. Ps. 83.10 he read `ascensus in corde eius').

    canticum graduum: Cf. Pss. 119-33, and see on 9.2.2. en. Ps. 119.1, `corpus quod corrumpitur aggravat animam [Wisd. 9.15], et deprimit terrena inhabitatio sensum multa cogitantem. . . . et quis est iste mons quo ascendimus, nisi dominus Iesus Christus?'

    igne tuo . . . inardescimus: See on 10.27.38, `exarsi'.

    sursum . . . Hierusalem: See on 12.16.23, `recordans Hierusalem extento in eam sursum corde, Hierusalem pacem meam'.

    quoniam iucundatus sum in his: Ps. 121.1ff, `iucundatus sum in his qui dixerunt mihi, in domum domini ibimus. . . . (6) interrogate quae ad pacem sunt Hierusalem'; en. Ps. 121.2, `iucundatus sum in prophetis, iucundatus sum in apostolis.'

    permanere illic in aeternum: Ps. 60.8, `permanebit in aeternum in conspectu dei'; divine `permanence' also at 4.11.16, 10.40.65, 12.28.38, 13.36.51; cf. 9.10.24, `et quid simile verbo tuo, domino nostro, in se permanenti sine vetustate atque innovanti omnia?' (cf. Wisd. 7.27)

    text of 13.10.11


    beata creatura: = caelum caeli (Knauer, 160). Even the `blessed creation' is in need of `conversion'.

    dono tuo: Acts. 2.38 (see on 13.9.10).

    nullo intervallo temporis: For the four kinds of priority, see 12.29.40.

    vocatione: Phil. 3.14 (see on 9.10.23), as at 11.29.39, `in ea quae ante sunt non distentus sed extentus, non secundum distentionem sed secundum intentionem sequor ad palmam supernae vocationis'.

    `fiat lux,' et fieret lux: This paragraph therefore continues commentary (begun at 13.3.4, to continue through 13.14.15) on `fiat lux.'

    tenebrae fuimus et lux efficimur: Eph. 5.8 (see on 13.2.3).

    fluxa: See on 13.7.8, `defluens'; on fluxus, see on 2.2.4.

    lumen indeficiens: Sirach 24.6, `ego feci in caelis ut orietur lumen indeficiens'; the epithet of God at 2.6.13 and 9.10.24; cf. en. Ps. 103. s. 1.8, `illud quidem verbum dei semper idem, semper incommutabile atque indeficiens', en. Ps. 87.8, `interiores [oculi] . . . cum in eis esset lux indeficiens'.

    qui potest intellegat: See on 12.29.40, `qui potest intellegat'.

    a te petat: Mt. 7.7-8.

    ut quid mihi molestus est: Gal. 6.17, `de cetero nemo mihi molestus sit; ego enim stigmata Iesu in corpore meo porto' (cf. 12.25.34, `nemo iam mihi molestus sit dicendo mihi').

    quasi ego inluminem: Jn. 1.9, `lumen verum inluminentem omnem hominem venientem in hunc mundum'.

    text of 13.11.12


    quis intelleget: Ps. 18.13, `delicta enim quis intellegit?' (see on 2.9.17).

    et quis non loquitur eam: Cf. on 1.4.4, `vae tacentibus de te'.

    quae, cum quae, cum O Maur. Ver.:   quaecumque G S Knöll Skut.:   quae dum C D

    haec tria: ep. 11.3 (388/91, to Nebridius), `nulla natura est, Nebridii, et omnino nulla substantia quae non in se habeat haec tria et prae se gerat: primo ut sit, deinde ut hoc vel illud sit, tertio ut in eo quod est maneat quantum potest. . . . sed breviter tibi aperire volui, si tamen egi quod volui, quam subtiliter et quanta veritate in catholica intellegatur huiusce inseparabilitas trinitatis.'

    in se ipsis: This is the explicit statement within conf. of A.'s doctrine of triadic reflection of God in creature; on the origins and development of that way of thinking, which receives its final development in the last books of trin., see du Roy passim (esp. 436-50) and Kusch 129-39, together replacing M. Schmaus, Die psychologische Trinitätslehre des heiligen Augustinus (Münster, 1927). Here it is a vehicle for better understanding the trinity: creatures are signs of a reality beyond sight (the invisibilia dei of Rom. 1.20).

    That the three persons in one God are reflected in three essential elements in the one soul of a human person is an early and pervasive teaching in A. du Roy 299 finds it first in div. qu. 38. (386/91), and rightly observes that the position developed there leads to `deux plus grandes fresques trinitaires', trin. 9-15 and civ. 11; the governing triad in div. qu. 38. is natura/disciplina/usus, which is not dissimilar to the one here, if usus is allowed some of its moral force (encapsulated by A. in the distinction uti/frui). On the present passage, see also du Roy 432-4, good on the difficulties that surround A.'s attempt to apply these three qualities to God. Any attempt to put a modern paraphrase next to these words will be unsatisfactory to many readers, for we are so close to what all agree to be ineffable that any translation or paraphrase offers no more than an interpretation of A.'s words, which deserve to be attended to themselves.

    esse, nosse, velle: This is the only place in A. where just this triad occurs explicitly (strongly implicit at sol. 2.1.1, `[A.] deus semper idem, noverim me, noverim te. oratum est. [Ratio] tu qui vis te nosse, scis esse te? [A.] scio.'); but many of the others are convertible with it. For parallels, cf. s. 52.7.19-10.23 (memory, intelligence, will: also at trin. 10.11.18, ep. 169.6); civ. 11.26, `nam et sumus, et nos esse novimus, et id esse ac nosse diligimus'; civ. 11.28 (quoted on 13.9.10); trin. 14.12.15 and 15.28.51 (memory, intelligence, love). For the form being/knowledge/love, Theiler, P.u.A. 52, adduces a Porphyrian (sent. 40 [ed. Lamberz pp. 50-1]) ou)si/a, gnw=sis ou)si/as, e(autw=n fili/a and concludes, too confidently, `Die psychologische Trinitätslehre des hl. Augustin zeigt sich so auch als Ableger porphyrischen Denkens'; but though the elements appear on the same page in Porphyry, there is no hint of the structure that is an essential element of A.'s use of the elements.

    vita [3] . . . mens [2] . . .essentia [1]. De Marchi 315-16 would read voluntas for the second `vita'. This is closer to the familiar triadic pattern, but the received version finds some support in triads at civ. 8.4, `et causa subsistendi [1] et ratio intellegendi [2] et ordo vivendi [3]' and 8.9, `et principium naturae [1] et veritas doctrinae [2] et felicitas vitae [3].'

    mens: For the equation, emphasizing the wording of the last triad here, see Io. ev. tr. 40.5, `si enim, quod pauci intellegunt, simplex est natura veritatis, hoc est filio esse quod nosse'.

    essentia: In conf. only here and 13.16.19, in a similar triad (essentia [1], scientia [2], voluntas [3]). Quintilian knows and disapproves of the word (and assigns its coinage to two different obscure writers in different passages [Quint. 2.14.2., 3.6.23, 8.3.33]); Seneca knows it and attributes it to Cicero (ep. 58.6). It has a life among philosophers as equivalent for Gk. ou)si/a (e.g., Apul. Plat. 1.6), but it only really comes into use in the fourth century, among Christian writers, to help in their discussions of eastern debates: note, e.g., Hil. Pict. syn. 12. A. would like to think it recent at civ. 12.2, `sicut enim ab eo quod est sapere vocatur sapientia, sic ab eo quod est esse vocatur essentia, novo quidem nomine, quo usi veteres non sunt latini sermonis auctores, sed iam nostris temporibus usitato, ne deesset etiam linguae nostrae quod graeci appellant “ousian”'; sim. at trin. 5.2.3. The word appears 248x in all in A., from imm. an. 11.18-12.19 to c. Iul. imp. 5.45 (but 169x in trin., of which 107x in trin. 7); on its history, see J. de Ghellinck, ALMA 16(1941), 77-112, with minor additions at 17(1942), 129-133.

    distinctio [2]: See on 12.3.3.

    attendat: Lam. 1.12, `o vos omnes qui transitis per viam attendite et videte' (see on 11.18.23).

    illud . . . incommutabile: See on 7.1.1

    utrum . . . an . . . an: G-M paraphrase at length but accurately: `and whether it is the coexistence of these three (being, knowledge and will) that constitutes a Trinity in God, or whether these three are in Each Person so that Each possesses all three; or whether both things are true, the boundary between Person and Person, though it is real in and for the Trinity, being, in ways beyond our understanding, a boundary that fades from view, both in the more simple acceptation of the analogy and in the more complex, and in this dual way the Trinity is, and is known to itself, and suffices to itself as being immutably the same in the manifold greatness of its unity - of these things who can easily form to himself a conception?' du Roy 433n3 is right to find this difficult, but the difficulty is in the idea, not the expression.

    miris modis: See on 5.7.13.

    infinito in se sibi fine: BA ad loc., `Augustin veut dire, semble-t-il, que la Trinité est en un sens finie sur elle-même, puisque les Personnes se connaissent intimement et totalement l'une l'autre, tout en restant également infinies.'

    sufficit [3]: See on 13.4.5.

    idipsum: See on 9.4.11 (and 9.10.24).

    copiosa unitatis magnitudine: oxymoron; cf. above `infinito . . . fine', `simpliciter multipliciter'.

    text of 13.12.13


    Here begins the allegorical interpretation of Gn., which will read Gn. 1 as the adumbration of the story of the Spirit working in the world in Christian times. Baptism is the natural point of departure for the allegory, while Gn. 1.1-5 is again the text on the table. (The discussion of Gn. from Bk. 11 to here offers many direct parallels to Gn. litt.; from here the interpretation takes an entirely different course.) On the allegory, see Gn. litt. 2.9.22, `quid autem hinc allegoriae senserim, confessionum nostrarum liber tertius decimus habet. sive igitur ita ut ibi posui, sive aliquo alio modo intellegendum sit caelum sicut pellis extentum, propter molestos et nimios exactores expositionis ad litteram hoc dico, quod, sicut arbitror, omnium sensibus patet. utrumque enim fortasse, id est et pellis et camera, figurate intellegi potest, utrumque autem ad litteram quomodo possit, videndum est.'

    sancte, sancte, sancte: Is. 6.3, Apoc. 4.8 (see on 12.7.7).

    in nomine tuo baptizati sumus: Mt. 28.19, `ite, baptizate omnes gentes in nomine patris et filii et spiritus sancti' (text from en. Ps. 103. s. 3.2); cf. 1 Cor. 1.15, `ne quis dicat quod in nomine meo [i.e., Pauli] baptizati sitis.'

    fecit deus caelum et terram: The interpretation offered in Bk. 12 now almost supplants the text itself. The interpreted text takes the same form and corresponds element for element to the original, but is itself less (at first glance) susceptible to interpretation, its meaning more determined.

    spiritales et carnales ecclesiae suae: 1 Cor. 3.1, `et ego, fratres, non potui vobis loqui quasi spiritalibus sed quasi carnalibus: tamquam parvulis in Christo' (again in 13.13.14, and see on 12.30.41).

    ecclesiae: The word ecclesia plays a dwindling part in conf.: 31x in the narrative books, then 3x in 10.33.50 (on church music), and not from there to here. From here, though the `church' is the direct object of this allegory, the word itself occurs only at 13.23.33, 13.26.40, and 13.34.49.

    terra nostra: Terra for morally and physically vulnerable flesh also at 1.11.18 and 9.11.28.

    formam doctrinae: Both words are apposite to the second person of the trinity, forma for the creative effort (see on 12.3.3), doctrina for the preparation of conversion (see on 1.1.1, `praedicatus enim es nobis'); cf. 7.5.7, `in multis quidem adhuc informis et praeter doctrinae normam fluitans'.

    ignorantiae tenebris: Ps. 54.6, `timor et tremor venerunt super me, et contexerunt me tenebrae.'

    pro iniquitate: Ps. 38.12, `pro iniquitate erudisti hominem et tabescere fecisti sicut araneam animam meam'; en. Ps. 38.17-18, `audi hoc planius ex alio psalmo: “bonum est mihi quod humilasti me, ut discam iustificationes tuas.” [Ps. 118.71] . . . si ergo ego in poena sum et apud te iniquitas non est, nonne restat ut pro iniquitate erudieris hominem? (18) et quomodo “erudisti”? . . . “et tabescere . . . animam meam.” haec est eruditio.' (Also at 7.10.16; see Knauer 139n2.)

    iudicia tua: Ps. 35.7, `iustitia tua sicut montes dei, iudicia tua sicut abyssus multa'; see on 13.2.3.

    `fiat lux'; `paenitentiam agite, appropinquavit enim regnum caelorum' : G-M: `The latter phrase is given as the allegorical interpretation of the former'; but the juxtaposition is hardly accidental or arbitrary. The phrase `fiat lux' presents the first words of God quoted in the OT; the second phrase gives us at the same time (1) the first words of John baptizing as the gospel narrative proper begins (Mt. 3.2) and (2) the first words of Jesus beginning his public mission after baptism and the temptation in the desert (Mt. 4.17). The first phrase bespeaks formatio, the second reformatio (conversio). Cf. en. Ps. 150.3, `vocamur praedicatione paenitentiae; sic enim coepit dominus evangelizare, “agite paenitentiam; appropinquavit enim regnum caelorum”'; s. 109.1.1, `dominus autem ipse Iesus Christus evangelii sui praedicationem ita coepit: “agite paenitentiam; appropinquavit enim regnum caelorum.” similiter et Iohannes Baptista et praecursor ipsius ita coepit . . .' (A. regarded Matthew as the first gospel [doctr. chr. 2.8.13].)

    conturbata: Ps. 41.6 (for full text, see at end of notes on this paragraph); this verse already echoed at 4.4.9 (see notes there); cf. also Ps. 42.5, `quare tristis es anima mea et quare conturbas me.' Now this mystical Psalm runs through the following paragraphs. en. Ps. 41.10, `ecce iam quadam interiore dulcedine laetati sumus, ecce acie mentis aliquid incommutabile, etsi perstrictim et raptim, perspicere potuimus; quare adhuc conturbas me, quare adhuc tristis es? [see on 13.13.14] . . . iam aliquid incommutabile persensi, quare adhuc conturbas me? . . . et quasi responderet illi anima eius in silentio: quare conturbo te, nisi quia nondum sum ibi, ubi est dulce illud, quo sic rapta sum quasi per transitum?'

    commemorati sumus tui: Finding God in memory: 10.24.35-10.26.37.

    de terra Iordanis et de monte aequali tibi [= Christ: Phil. 2.6], sed parvo propter nos [i.e., Christ incarnate]: en. Ps. 41.12, `unde memoratus sum tui? a monte parvo, et de terra Iordanis. forte de baptismo, ubi est remissio peccatorum. etenim nemo currit ad remissionem peccatorum nisi qui displicet sibi [10.2.2; see below]; nemo currit ad remissionem peccatorum nisi qui se confitetur peccatorem; nemo se confitetur peccatorem nisi huMilando seipsum deo.' On the equation mons = Christus, with an abundance of texts, see A. Lauras, Aug. Mag. 2.667-675.

    displicuerunt: 10.2.2, `cum enim malus sum, nihil est aliud confiteri tibi quam displicere mihi.'

    conversi sumus: See on 13.2.3. This is the last occurrence of any convert- root word in conf.

    et ecce fuimus: Eph. 5.8, `fuimus aliquando tenebrae, nunc autem lux in domino' (see on 13.2.3). Knauer 124: `Dies ist der Schluss der Erklärung der Genesis verse, die die Schaffung und Teilung des Lichtes betreffen (gen. 1,3-4). Danach kommt Eph. 5,8 nicht mehr vor.'

    Psalm 41 was apparently sung in procession by baptismal candidates on their way to the baptistry in A.'s Africa (van der Meer 364, interpreting en. Ps. 41.1 [quoted on 13.13.14, `et sitit anima eius' ]). A.'s sermon on this Psalm, quoted frequently in the commentary, was preached at some date after 410. (For commentary on the place of this Psalm in A.'s thought, see C. Butler, Western Mysticism [2nd ed., London, 1926], 20-6.) Psalm 41 (following en. Ps. 41)

    (2) quemadmodum desiderat cervus ad fontes aquarum, ita desiderat anima mea ad te, deus. (3) sitivit anima mea ad deum vivum; quando veniam et apparebo ante faciem dei? (4) fuerunt mihi lacrimae meae panis die ac nocte, cum dicitur mihi per singulos dies, ubi est deus tuus? (5) haec meditatus sum, et effudi super me animam meam. quoniam ingrediar in locum tabernaculi admirabilis, usque ad domum dei. in voce exsultationis et confessionis, soni festivitatem celebrantis. (6) quare tristis es, anima mea, et quare conturbas me? spera in deum, quoniam confitebor illi salutare vultus mei, (7) deus meus. ad meipsum anima mea turbata est. propterea memoratus sum tui, domine, de terra Iordanis et Hermoniim a monte parvo. (8) abyssus abyssum invocat, in voce cataractarum tuarum. omnes suspensiones tuae et fluctus tui super me ingressi sunt. (9) in die mandavit dominus misericordiam suam, et nocte declarabit; apud me oratio deo vitae meae. (10) dicam deo, susceptor meus es, quare mei oblitus es? utquid me repulisti, et utquid contristatus incedo, dum affligit me inimicus? (11) dum confringit ossa mea, exprobraverunt mihi qui tribulant me, dum dicunt mihi per singulos dies: ubi est deus tuus? (12) quare tristis es, anima mea, et quare conturbas me? spera in deum, quoniam adhuc confitebor illi, salutare vultus mei, et deus meus.

    text of 13.13.14


    A vivid repraesentatio of Paul, to be read in light of his role in Bk. 8 (prepared at 7.21.27: see on 8.1.1). The paragraph is almost completely made up of scriptural citations, save only a few necessary connecting words. Its key texts evoke both 7.10.16 and 9.10.24-5 (mystic ascents). In this baptismal section A. juxtaposes (as vividly, but yet more concisely and clearly, as in Bk. 9) the relation between the coming of the spirit in baptism and the possibilities for the ascent of the baptized soul; see Knauer 126n1 for the structural function (against G-M's claim that this is a "digression suggested by this mystical interpretation"). The essential turn is noted below on `non in voce sua'.

    adhuc: 4x in this paragraph alone; see on 10.4.6, `quis adhuc sim'. 2 Cor. 5.6-7, `audentes igitur semper et scientes quoniam dum praesentes sumus in corpore peregrinamur a domino, (7) per fidem ambulamus et non per speciem'. en. Ps. 123.2, `mundantur autem corda nostra per fidem, ut possint esse idonea capere speciem. ambulamus enim nunc per fidem, nondum per speciem, sicut apostolus dicit.' N.B. `lux speciei' below, almost the only words of that are A.'s - i.e., not scriptural citations - in the paragraph.

    spe enim salvi facti sumus: Rom. 8.24, `spe enim salvi facti sumus, spes autem quae videtur non est spes; nam quod videt quis sperat?' Cf. 11.9.11, `spe enim salvi facti sumus', 13.14.15.

    abyssus abyssum invocat: Ps. 41.8 (see above for text); en. Ps. 41.13, `si profunditas est abyssus, putamus non cor hominis abyssus est? quid enim est profundius hac abysso? . . . si ergo homo abyssus est, quomodo abyssus invocat abyssum? homo invocat hominem? invocat quasi quomodo deus invocatur? non. . . . abyssus abyssum invocat, homo hominem. sic discitur sapientia, sic discitur fides, cum abyssus abyssum invocat. abyssum invocant sancti praedicatores verbi dei. numquid et ipsi non abyssus? . . . quanta profunditas infirmitatis latebat in Petro, quando quid in se ageretur intus nesciebat, et se moriturum cum domino vel pro domino temere promittebat! quanta abyssus erat! quae tamen abyssus nuda erat oculis dei [10.2.2]. . . . ergo omnis homo licet sanctus, licet iustus, licet in multis proficiens, abyssus est, et abyssum invocat, quando homini aliquid fidei, aliquid veritatis propter vitam aeternam praedicat. sed tunc est utilis abyssus abysso invocatae, quando fit in voce cataractarum tuarum.'

    non potui vobis: 1 Cor. 3.1, `non potui vobis loqui quasi spiritalibus sed quasi carnalibus, tamquam parvulis in Christo' (see on 12.30.41).

    et quae retro oblitus: Phil. 3.13 (see on 9.10.23). The allegorical sense of scripture liberates from time (cf. Eliot's `use of memory' in `Little Gidding': quoted in excursus on 10.8.12): vera rel. 7.13, `huius religionis sectandae caput est historia et prophetia dispensationis temporalis providentiae pro salute generis humani in aeternam vitam reformandi atque reparandi. quae cum credita fuerit, mentem purgabit vitae modus divinis praeceptis conciliatus, et idoneam faciet spiritalibus percipiendis, quae nec praeterita sunt nec futura, sed eodem modo semper manentia, nulli mutabilitati obnoxia, id est unum ipsum deum patrem et filium et spiritum sanctum'.

    ingemescit gravatus: 2 Cor. 5.4, `nam et qui sumus in tabernaculo ingemiscimus gravati, in quo nolumus spoliari sed supervestiri' (for text, cf. en. Ps. 68. s. 1.3); cf. `superindui cupiens'. en. Ps. 78.15, `“in conspectu tuo gemitus compeditorum.” [Ps. 78.11] . . . ab his compedibus concupiscebat dissolvi apostolus et esse cum Christo. . . . has ergo compedes non sentiunt, nisi qui in semetipsis ingemiscunt gravati, habitaculum quod de caelo est superindui cupientes, quia et mors horrori est, et maerori vita mortalis.'

    et sitit anima eius: Ps. 41.2-3 (see text above); en. Ps. 41.1, `et quidem non male intellegitur vox esse eorum qui, cum sint catechumeni, ad gratiam sancti lavacri festinant. unde et sollemniter cantatur hic psalmus, ut ita desiderent fontem remissionis peccatorum, quemadmodum desiderat cervus ad fontes aquarum. sit hoc, habeatque locum intellectus iste in ecclesia et veracem et sollemnem. verumtamen, fratres, videtur mihi etiam in baptismate fidelibus nondum esse satiatum tale desiderium; sed fortassis, si norunt ubi peregrinentur, et quo eis transeundum sit, etiam ardentius inflammantur.'

    cervi: en. Ps. 41.3, `audi quid aliud est in cervo. serpentes necat, et post serpentium interemptionem maiori siti inardescit, peremptis serpentibus ad fontes acrius currit.'

    habitaculum suum . . . cupiens: 2 Cor. 5.2-3, `nam et in hoc ingemiscimus habitationem nostram quae de caelo est, superindui cupientes, (3) si tamen et exspoliati non nudi inveniamur' (already cited at 10.34.51). en. Ps. 110.1, `haec autem vita de nobis exigit continentiam, ut etiam cum labore atque luctamine ingemiscentes gravati, et habitaculum nostrum quod de caelo est superindui cupientes, a saecularibus delectationibus temperemus.'

    et vocat inferiorem abyssum: Ps. 41.8 (as above).

    vocat vocat G S Knöll Skut.:   invocat C D O2 Maur. Ver.:   indvocat O1
    The sense not an absolute `calls upon' but a `calls and says'; invocat is thus facilior. See also en. Ps. 41.13, `homo invocat hominem? invocat quasi quomodo deus invocatur? non. sed invocat dicitur: ad se vocat.' It would clearly be inappropriate for Paul to `invoke'.

    nolite conformari huic saeculo: Rom. 12.2, `et nolite conformari huic saeculo, sed reformamini in novitate sensus vestri' (echoed again at 13.21.30, 13.21.31, 13.22.32). en. Ps. 32. en. 2 s. 2.16, `in animo tuo est imago dei, mens hominis capit eam. . . . ipse ad eam venit reformator, qui erat eius ante formator; quia per verbum facta sunt omnia, et per verbum impressa est haec imago. venit ipsum verbum, ut audiremus ab apostolo, “reformamini in novitate mentis vestrae.”' Sim. at en. Ps. 118. s. 18.3 and 118. s. 19.1.

    nolite pueri effici mentibus: 1 Cor. 14.20, `nolite pueri effici mentibus, sed malitia parvuli estote, mentibus autem perfecti estote' (Gk. has fresi/n for mentibus in both places, Vg. sensibus). en. Ps. 130.12 (after quoting Ps. 41.4-5), `audi evidentem sententiam de hac re: nolite pueri effici mentibus; sed malitia infantes estote, ut mentibus perfecti sitis. certe explicatum est, fratres mei, ubi nos deus voluit esse humiles, ubi altos; humiles, propter cavendam superbiam, altos, propter capiendam sapientiam.' The link between the two verses is in part purely formal: `nolite . . .'

    o stulti Galatae: Gal. 3.1, `o stulti [Gk. a)no/htoi] Galatae, quis vos fascinavit, ante quorum oculos Iesus Christus descriptus est crucifixus?' (Vg. has `insensati' but A. cites it as here at Gal. exp. 18, s. 10.2, and ep. 93.9.31, never otherwise.)

    non in voce sua: The gift of divine speech, for which A. prayed at 1.5.5 (`miserere ut loquar), is one that Paul has achieved; that is, his words are no longer his words but God's. Paul has learned to `facere veritatem' and has come to the light - see on 10.1.1 and cf. the last sentence of the preceding paragraph.

    qui misisti spiritum tuum: Wisd. 9.17, `sensum autem tuum quis sciet nisi tu dederis sapientiam et miseris spritum sanctum tuum de altissimis?'

    qui ascendit in altum: Ps. 67.19, `ascendisti in altum, captivasti captivitatem, accepisti dona in hominibus' (en. Ps. 67.25, `Christo ergo sine dubitatione dictum est, “ascendisti in altum . . .”'), quoted by Paul at Eph. 4.7-10 (text from en. Ps. 67.25), `unicuique autem nostrum datur gratia secundum mensuram donationis Christi, (8) propter quod dicit ascendit in altum, captivavit captivitatem, dedit dona hominibus. (9) quod autem ascendit, quid est, nisi quia et descendit in inferiores partes terrae? (10) qui descendit, ipse est et qui ascendit super omnes caelos, ut adimpleret omnia.'

    et aperuit cataractas: Mal. 3.10, `et probate me super hoc, dicit dominus: si non aperuero vobis cataractas caeli et effudero vobis benedictionem usque ad abundantiam'; cf. Gn. 7.11, `et cataractae caeli apertae sunt' (and so the Flood came to pass). The connection here is Ps. 41.8, `cataractarum', adapted to baptismal water/spirit imagery.

    ut fluminis impetus laetificarent: Ps. 45.5, `fluminis impetus laetificant civitatem dei'; en. Ps. 45.8, `qui sunt isti impetus fluminis? inundatio illa spiritus sancti, de qua dominus dicebat, “si quis sitit, veniat et bibat; qui credit in me, flumina aquae vivae fluent de ventre eius.” [Jn. 7.38] ergo haec flumina fluebant de ventre Pauli, Petri, Iohannis, aliorum apostolorum, aliorum evangelistarum fidelium.'

    suspirat: See on 9.10.24, `suspiravimus'; there in a mystical context, as at 7.10.16 and 9.10.25.

    sponsi amicus: Jn. 3.29, `qui habet sponsam, sponsus est; amicus autem sponsi; qui stat et audit eum, gaudio gaudet propter vocem sponsi hoc ergo gaudium meum impletum est.' G-M: `The term is here applied to St. Paul in view of the coming reference to 2 Cor. 11.3.' (The vox sponsi is heard at 4.15.27 and 11.8.10.)

    spiritus primitias: Rom. 8.23, `sed et nos ipsi primitias spiritus habentes, et ipsi intra nos gemimus adoptionem filiorum exspectantes, redemptionem corporis nostri.' See on 9.10.24 (and cf. 12.16.23).

    penes eum: G-M: `may be rendered “by virtue of his union with Christ” (in contrast with “in semet ipso”).' exp. prop. Rom. 45 (53), `spiritus primitias habemus, quia iam spiritu adhaeremus deo per fidem. . . . haec enim adoptio, quae iam facta est in his qui crediderunt, spiritu non corpore facta est.'

    sicut serpens Evam decepit: 2 Cor. 11.3, `timeo autem ne, sicut serpens Evam seduxit astutia sua, sic et mentes vestrae corrumpantur a simplicitate et castitate quae est in Christo' (text from en. Ps. 126.3, suppl. by en. Ps. 118. s. 28.2). en. Ps. 39.1, `serpens ergo iste adulter antiquus virginitatem corrumpendam non carnis sed cordis inquirit'; en. Ps. 18. en. 2.2, `“ipse tamquam sponsus procedens de thalamo suo.” [Ps. 18.1] quis est enim sponsus, nisi cui desponsata est illa virgo ab apostolo, cui timet caste castus sponsi amicus [!], ne sicut serpens Evam fefellit astutia sua, sic et huius virginis sponsae Christi sensus corrumpantur a castitate quae est in Christo?'

    cum videbimus eum sicuti est: 1 Jn. 3.2, `scimus quoniam cum ipse apparuerit similes ei erimus [i.e., no longer in the regio dissimilitudinis of 7.10.16], quoniam videbimus eum, sicuti est.'

    quae mihi factae sunt panis: Ps. 41.4 (see text above; also at 12.11.13); en. Ps. 41.6, `suaves erant mihi ipsae lacrimae; sitiens illum fontem, quia bibere nondum poteram, avidius meas lacrimas manducabam. . . . sive, inquit, in prosperis rebus saeculi, sive in adversis rebus saeculi, ego desiderii mei lacrimas fundo, ego desiderii mei aviditatem non desero; et cum in mundo bene est, mihi male est, antequam apparebo ante faciem dei.'

    text of 13.14.15


    ego: i.e., not Paul (whose words fill the preceding paragraph).

    deus meus ubi es: A variant of the question from Ps. 41.4 and 11, `ubi est deus tuus?', rendered rhetorical and not plaintive by the next words.

    respiro: Cf. 9.7.16, `olim suspirans tibi et tandem respirans,' and 8.11.25, `nec relabebar [see below] tamen in pristina, sed de proximo stabam et respirabam.' Skut. and others instance Job 32.20 (Vg), `loquar et respiro paululum', but the VL reading is `loquar et requiescam'.

    cum effundo: Ps. 41.5 (see text above); en. Ps. 41.8, `dicant illi adhuc “ubi est deus tuus?” quaero ego deum meum in omni corpore, sive terrestri sive caelesti, et non invenio; quaero substantiam eius in anima mea, et non invenio; meditatus sum tamen inquisitionem dei mei, et per ea quae facta sunt invisibilia dei mei cupiens intellecta conspicere [Rom. 1.20], “effudi super me animam meam”; et non iam restat quem tangam, nisi deum meum. ibi enim domus dei mei, super animam meam; ibi habitat, inde me prospicit, inde me creavit, inde me gubernat, inde mihi consulit, inde me excitat, inde me vocat, inde me dirigit, inde me ducit, inde me perducit.' Sim. at Io. ev. tr. 20.11, 23.5. (He could be describing the ascent contained in the first half of Bk. 10.)

    relabitur: Cf. 8.11.25 (quoted above) and 13.2.3.

    quare tristis es: Ps. 41.6, 41.12, 42.5: see on 13.12.13.

    lucerna pedibus tuis verbum eius: A comment on the scripture citation just preceding (a point obscured by punctuation in earlier edd.). Cf. Ps. 118.105, `lucerna pedibus meis verbum tuum et lumen semitis meis'; en. Ps. 118. s. 23.1, `quid est ergo “verbum tuum”? numquidnam illud quod in principio erat deus apud deum, verbum scilicet per quod facta sunt omnia? [Jn. 1.1f] non est ita. nam illud verbum lumen est, sed lucerna non est. lucerna quippe creatura est, non creator, quae participatione incommutabilis lucis accenditur. hoc erat Iohannes, de quo dicit verbum deus, “ille erat lucerna ardens et lucens.” [Jn. 5.35] sed lumen est et lucerna: . . . nisi autem et lucerna lumen esset, non diceret apostolis, “vos estis lumen mundi.” . . . quid est hoc verbum, quod ita lumen dicitur ut lucerna sit . . . , nisi verbum intellegamus quod factum est ad prophetas, vel quod praedicatum est per apostolos. non verbum Christum, sed verbum Christi, de quo scriptum est, “fides ex auditu, auditus autem per verbum Christi.” [Rom. 10.17] . . . quod itaque hic ait, “lucerna pedibus meis verbum tuum, et lumen semitis meis,” verbum est quod in scripturis sanctis omnibus continetur.' Sim. at Io. ev. tr. 23.2-4, en. Ps. 131.27.

    mater: mater in metaphorical sense almost always positive in conf. (e.g., = caritas or ecclesia); negative only here and at 13.21.30.

    donec transeat ira domini: Is. 26.20, `plebs mea intra in cellaria tua; abscondere pusillum donec transeat ira domini' (text from ep. 36.13.31); cf. Eph. 2.3, `et eramus natura filii irae sicut et ceteri.'

    et nos fuimus aliquando tenebrae: Eph. 5.8 (see on 13.2.3); last echoes in this paragraph.

    in corpore propter peccatum mortuo: Rom. 8.10, `si autem Christus in vobis est, corpus quidem mortuum est propter peccatum, spiritus vero vita propter iustitiam.'

    donec aspiret dies: Cant. 2.17 (VL), `donec aspiret dies, et removeantur umbrae'. en. Ps. 67.9-10, `omnia quippe illa in figura contingebant in illis, donec aspiraret dies, et removerentur umbrae. (10) aperiat itaque nobis pulsantibus [Mt. 7.7] dominus; et mysteriorum eius, quantum ipse dignatur, secreta pandantur.' For other citations, see La Bonnardière, REAug 1(1955), 225-237.

    mane astabo: Ps. 5.4-5, `mane exaudies vocem meam, (5) mane adstabo tibi et videbo, quoniam non deus volens iniquitatem tu es'; text from en. Ps. 5.5, but Ps. Veron. reads, instead of `videbo', `contemplabor te' : s. Guelf. 29.5, `praesentis saeculi nocte transacta, astabo inquit et videbo, astabo et contemplabor.' Knauer 129, `das “mane” wird den hiesigen Zustand des “adhuc” ablosen' : trin. 1.8.17, `haec enim nobis contemplatio actionum omnium finis atque aeterna perfectio gaudiorum . . . tunc erit mane nostrum, de quo in psalmo dicitur: mane astabo tibi et contemplabor'; sim. at en. Ps. 6.7, 26. en. 2.8, 58. s. 2.10, s. Frang. 4.1, and often elsewhere; and cf. en. Ps. 143.11, `adhuc [!] in nocte sumus et ad prophetiae lucernam [Ps. 118.105] vigilamus. aliquid promissum est, quod adhuc [!] expectatur. . . . ipse dies praemium nostrum ibi est: “mane exaudies . . .”' The theme is reprised in A.'s discussions of `morning and evening knowledge' in the angels (e.g., civ. 11.7, `quoniam scientia creaturae in comparatione scientiae creatoris quodam modo vesperascit, itemque lucescit et mane fit, cum et ipsa refertur ad laudem dilectionemque creatoris'); and see on 8.5.12 and 8.12.29 for the influential dawn imagery of Rom. 13.11-12.

    salutare vultus mei: Ps. 41.6, 41.12, 42.5 (see text above).

    vivificabit et mortalia corpora nostra: Rom. 8.11, `quod si spiritus eius qui suscitavit Iesum a mortuis habitat in vobis, qui suscitavit Christum a mortuis vivificabit et mortalia corpora vestra per inhabitantem spiritum suum in vobis.'

    pignus: 2 Cor. 1.22, `et qui signavit nos et dedit pignus spiritus in cordibus nostris'; 2 Cor. 5.5, `deus, qui dedit nobis pignus spiritus.' en. Ps. 146.6, `hoc ergo pignus accepit spiritus noster, ut incipiamus fide servire deo, et ex fide appellari iusti. . . . ad hoc pignus dedit, ut compleat quod promisit.'

    ut iam simus lux: Eph. 5.8 (see above).

    spe salvi facti sumus: Rom. 8.24, `spe enim salvi facti sumus, spes autem quae videtur non est spes, nam quod videt quis, sperat?' (see on 13.13.14).

    filii lucis et filii dei: 1 Thess. 5.5-6, `omnes enim vos filii lucis estis et filii diei, non sumus noctis neque tenebrarum, (6) igitur non dormiamus sicut ceteri, sed vigilemus et sobrii simus' (cf. again Rom. 13.11-13: see on 8.12.29).

    quod tamen fuimus: Eph. 5.8 (see above).

    tu solus dividis: So only God distinguishes the `two cities': civ. 1.35, `perplexae quippe sunt istae duae civitates in hoc saeculo invicemque permixtae, donec ultimo iudicio dirimantur.' But the verb echoes Gn. 1.4 (`et divisit deus inter lucem et tenebras'), implicitly reading that text allegorically. We are to read that text and see NT meaning, just as A. read the platonicorum libri and saw NT meaning at 7.9.13.

    probas corda nostra: Ps. 16.3, `probasti cor meum et visitasti nocte'; 1 Thess. 2.4, `sed sicut probati sumus a deo, ut crederetur nobis evangelium, ita loquimur non quasi hominibus placentes sed deo, qui probat corda nostra.'

    discernit: This passages retroactively makes 2.8.16, `discernit umbras eius?', into an allegorical reflection of the Gn. text.

    quid autem habemus: 1 Cor. 4.7, `quid autem habes quod non accepisti?' (also echoed at 7.21.27).

    ex eadem massa: Rom. 9.21, `an non habet potestatem figulus luti ex eadem massa facere aliud quidem vas in honorem, aliud vero in ignominiam?' (see on 12.26.36).

    text of 13.15.16


    The exegesis of Gn. 1 will now make more rapid progress; here, cf. Gn. 1.6-7.

    caelum enim plicabitur: Is. 34.4, `caelum plicabitur sicut liber'; en. Ps. 93.6, `dictum est ergo “extendit caelum sicut pellem.” cum autem transeunt tempora necessitatis librorum, quid dictum est? “caelum plicabitur ut liber.” qui ergo sursum habet cor, ipsum cor ipsius luminare est; in caelo fulget, nec vincitur tenebris. . . . cor ergo in libro; si cor in libro, cor in firmamento caeli'; cf. also en. Ps. 8.7, quoted on 13.15.17. (The verb is common of unrolling a book, from papyrus use: Lk. 4.20, `et cum plicuisset librum, reddidit ministro et sedit.')

    sicut pellis extenditur: Ps. 103.2, `circumamictus lucem, velut vestimentum, extendit caelum sicut pellem.' Cf. Gn. litt. 2.9.22, asking whether this Ps. verse contradicts Gn. 1.6-7: quoted on 13.12.13. en. Ps. 103. s. 1.8, `figurate autem si aliquid tectum retegi volumus et pulsare ad clausum, invenimus extendisse deum caelum sicut pellem, ut intellegamus caelum sanctam scripturam. hanc auctoritatem primo posuit deus in ecclesia sua; inde coepit exsequi cetera; posuit enim caelum, et extendit sicut pellem, et non frustra sicut pellem. primo istam famam praedicantium extendit sicut pellem: pellis mortalitatem significat; propterea et illi duo homines primi parentes nostri, auctores peccati generis humani, Adam et Eva, cum in paradiso, contempto dei praecepto, ad suggestionem suasionemque serpentis transgressi essent quod iusserat deus, facti mortales dimissi sunt de paradiso; ut autem significaretur ipsa mortalitas eorum, induti sunt tunicis pelliceis. . . . non frustra, fratres, hic ut pellis, ibi ut liber; figuratum ibi quiddam nobis est. quod ad divinam scripturam attinet, extenditur sermo mortuorum; ergo ideo tenditur sicut pellis; et multo magis tenditur, quia illi mortui sunt. nam post mortem plus innotuerunt prophetae et apostoli.'

    tu scis: Tob. 3.16, etc.: see Knauer 76-7.

    pellibus indueris homines: Gn. 3.21, `tunicas pelliceas' (see on 7.18.24). BA ad loc. `l'écriture est ainsi présentée comme un antidote de la mortalité inséré dans la mortalité même.'

    unde sicut pellem: Ps. 103.2 (as above).

    concordes utique: A hint that the two testaments preach the same message when the OT is read allegorically: cf. H. de Lubac, Exégèse Médièvale (Paris, 1959), 1.305-63.

    solidamentum: i.e., firmamentum, to whose etymological sense A. is always sensitive.

    cum hic viverent: The words of dead men, given immortality in writing, are powerful and surprising signs of vitality, extending the power of the living into the world beyond their lifetimes.

    text of 13.15.17


    The emphasis here (as not in Bk. 12) is on the concrete form of words presented in scripture, i.e., the Word as mediated by the Spirit through the prophets and apostles.

    caelos: Ps. 8.4, `quoniam videbo caelos, opera digitorum tuorum'; en. Ps. 8.7, `legimus digito dei scriptam legem, et datam per Moysen sanctum servum eius; quem digitum dei multi intellegunt spiritum sanctum. quapropter si digitos dei, eosdem ipsos ministros spiritu sancto repletos, propter ipsum spiritum qui in eis operatur, recte accipimus, . . . convenienter intellegimus hoc loco caelos dictos libros utriusque testamenti. . . . “quoniam videbo”, inquit, “caelos, opera digitorum tuorum,” id est, cernam et intellegam scripturas, quas operante spiritu sancto per ministros conscripsisti.'

    nubilum: Cf. 11.9.11, `discendens nubilum meum', where this defect of vision arises in sin; see also on 7.8.12, `collyrio'.

    testimonium tuum: Ps. 18.8, `lex domini immaculata convertens animas, testimonium domini fidele, sapientiam praestans parvulis'; en. Ps. 18. en. 1.8, `testimonium domini fidele, quia nemo novit patrem nisi filius, et cui voluerit filius revelare [Mt. 11.27]; quae abscondita sunt a sapientibus et revelata parvulis [Mt. 11.25], quoniam deus superbis resistit, humilibus autem dat gratiam [Jas. 4.6 etc.: see on 1.1.1].'

    perfice . . . lactantium: Ps. 8.3, `ex ore infantium et lactentium perfecisti laudem, propter inimicos tuos ut destruas inimicum et defensorem'; en. Ps. 8.5, `non possum accipere alios infantes atque lactentes quam eos quibus dicit apostolus, “tamquam parvulis in Christo lac vobis potum dedi, non cibum.” [1 Cor. 3.1-2: see on 13.13.14] quos significabant illi qui dominum praecedebant laudantes; in quos ipse dominus hoc testimonio usus est, cum dicentibus Iudaeis ut eos corriperet, respondit: “non legistis, ex ore infantium et lactentium perfecisti laudem?” [Mt. 21.16] bene autem non ait, “fecisti”, sed “perfecisti laudem.” sunt enim in ecclesiis etiam hi qui non iam lacte potantur, sed vescuntur cibo, quos idem apostolus significat, dicens: “sapientiam loquimur inter perfectos” [1 Cor. 2.6]; sed non ex his solis perficiuntur ecclesiae, quia si soli essent non consuleretur generi humano. consulitur autem cum illi quoque nondum capaces cognitionis rerum spiritalium atque aeternarum, nutriuntur fide temporalis historiae, quae pro salute nostra post patriarchas et prophetas ab excellentissima dei virtute atque sapientia etiam suscepti hominis sacramento administrata est, in qua salus est omni credenti'.

    ita destruentes superbiam: Ez. 30.6, `haec dicit dominus deus, et corruent fulcientes Aegyptum et destruetur superbia imperii eius' (not cited elsewhere in A.).

    defensorem: Sirach 30.6, `reliquit enim defensorem domus contra amicos'; cf. Ps. 8.3 and en. Ps. 8.5 quoted above.

    defendendo peccata sua: en. Ps. 130.9, `hoc autem contingit omnibus haereticis, qui cum essent animales et carnales, defendendo sententias suas pravas, quas falsas esse non potuerunt videre, exclusi sunt de catholica'; in sim. sense at 5.10.19, `defendebam'.

    casta eloquia: Ps. 11.7, `eloquia domini eloquia casta'; en. Ps. 11.7, `“casta” dicit, sine corruptione simulationis. multi enim praedicant veritatem non caste, quia vendunt illam pretio commoditatum huius saeculi.' Cf. 7.21.27, `facies eloquiorum castorum'; ep. 55.17.31, `homo perfectus et quietus, purgatus in anima et corpore per eloquia domini casta'.

    iugo tuo: Mt. 11.29-30, `tollite iugum meum super vos et discite a me quoniam mitis sum et humilis corde, et invenietis requiem animabus vestris. (30) iugum enim meum lene et sarcina mea levis est.' An important text for themes of incarnation and baptism at 7.9.14, 7.21.27, 8.2.3, 8.4.9, 9.1.1.

    colere te gratis: Gn. litt. 8.11.24, `sic enim eum gratis secundum illam vocem diligimus, “mihi autem adhaerere deo bonum est”' (see on 7.11.17); cf. 8.5.10, 10.22.32. s. 178.10.11, `gratis amasti. si ergo sermo meus invenit in cordibus vestris aliquam scintillam gratuiti amoris dei, ipsam nutrite . . . . ipsa cum creverit, et flammam dignissimam et amplissimam fecerit, omnium cupiditatum carnalium foena consumit.'

    intellegam . . . da mihi: Ps. 118.34, `da mihi intellectum et scrutabor legem tuam et custodiam illam in toto corde meo'; en. Ps. 118. s. 11.4, `cum enim quisque legem scrutatus fuerit, et ad eius alta pervenerit, in quibus tota pendet, profecto debet deum diligere ex toto corde, ex tota anima, ex tota mente, et proximum suum tamquam seipsum.'

    text of 13.15.18


    aliae aquae: Gn. 1.7.

    laudent te: Ps. 148.3-5, `laudate eum omnes angeli eius, laudate eum omnes virtutes eius, (4) laudate eum sol et luna, laudate eum omnes stellae et lumen, (5) laudate eum caeli caelorum et aquae quae super caelos sunt, laudent nomen domini'; en. Ps. 148.5, `semper laudant deum beati; nos autem adhuc iusum [= deorsum] sumus, sed cum cogitamus quomodo ibi laudetur deus, cor ibi habeamus, et non sine causa audiamus: sursum corda. [12.16.23] levemus cor sursum, ne putrescat in terra; quoniam placet nobis quod ibi agunt angeli.' See on 7.13.19 (with text of the whole Psalm); cf. 12.15.20, 13.33.48.

    firmamentum: Here = scriptura, therefore `suspicere firmamentum' = legere scripturam.

    verbum [2] . . . faciem [1] . . . voluntas [3].

    vident . . . semper: Mt. 18.10, `angeli eorum in caelis semper vident faciem patris mei, qui in caelis est'; cf. 12.15.21, 12.17.24. ep. 147.9.22, `eo autem modo quo videtur sicuti est, nunc fortasse videtur a quibusdam angelis, a nobis autem tunc ita videbitur, cum eis facti fuerimus aequales.'

    sine syllabis temporum: See 11.22.28 - 11.27.35, for syllables and time.

    legunt [1? cf. `semper' ] eligunt [2?] et diligunt [3]: Io. ev. tr. 99.4, `ipsa mens nostra . . . quando immutabilem veritatem intellegit, eligit, diligit, et lumen videt de quo dicitur erat lumen verum [Jn. 1.9]; et verbum audit de quo dicitur in principio erat verbum [Jn. 1.1]; et odorem capit de quo dicitur post odorem unguentorum tuorum curremus [Cant. 1.3]; et fontem bibit de quo dicitur apud te est fons vitae [Ps. 35.10]; et tactu fruitur, de quo dicitur, mihi autem adhaerere deo bonum est [Ps. 72.28].' N.B. the sequence of the senses, invoking five scriptural texts cited prominently in conf.

    plicatur: Cf. Is. 34.4, `caelum plicabitur ut liber' (see on 13.15.16).

    tu ipse illis hoc es: At the extremity of allegorical interpretation, God is a book; at the opposite extreme, the reader himself is to become a book: en. Ps. 121.8, `interpretatio nominis eius dicta est iam, et saepe dicatur; forte enim etsi recens dicta est, excidit. dicendo nos faciamus ut non excidat etiam eis qui legere non noverunt aut noluerunt; nos simus codex ipsorum.'

    et es in aeternum: Ps. 47.15, `hic est deus noster in aeternum et in saeculum saeculi; et ipse reget nos in saecula.'

    in caelo enim . . . nubes: Ps. 35.6, `domine, in caelo misericordia tua et veritas tua usque ad nubes'; nubes = praedicatores at en. Ps. 35.8 and elsewhere (see on 2.2.3). Several threads of this paragraph come together again at en. Ps. 56.17, `etenim in caelo angeli laudant deum, videntes ipsam speciem veritatis, sine ulla caligine visionis . . . : vident, diligunt, laudant, non fatigantur. . . . novimus ergo nubes dei esse praedicatores veritatis. . . . veritas praepollet in angelis; sed dedisti illam et hominibus, et deduxisti illam usque ad nubes.'

    transeunt nubes: Ps. 17.13, `nubes ipsius transierunt'; en. Ps. 17.13, `praedicatores verbi eius non iam in Iudaeae finibus continentur, sed transierunt ad gentes.' For the passing away of the prophets and evangelists, see on 13.15.16.

    praedicatores: Begins an ascending sequence (continued in `scriptura . . . sermones . . . verbum') from what the visible present authority (the preacher) to the text, to the multiple `words' contained in the text, to God's eternal word.

    caelum et terra transibunt: Mt. 24.35, `caelum et terra transibunt, verba vero mea non praeteribunt'; applied at en. Ps. 36. s. 3.11 and en. Ps. 103. s. 1.17 to the transitoriness of the physical universe.

    pellis plicabitur: Ps. 103.2, `extendit caelum sicut pellem'; Is. 34.4 (see on 13.15.16).

    faenum: Is. 40.6-8, `omnis caro faenum, et omnis claritas carnis ut flos faeni: (7) faenum aruit, flos decidit . . . (8) verbum autem domini manet in aeternum.' en. Ps. 91.8, `omnia ergo arescunt et decidunt; non verbum illud: verbum enim domini manet in aeternum. transit faenum, transit claritas faeni, sed habes quo te teneas: verbum domini manet in aeternum.' Cf. 11.6.8.

    in aenigmate . . . et per speculum: 1 Cor. 13.12, `videmus enim nunc per speculum in aenigmate, tunc autem facie ad faciem.' (Other echoes at 6.3.4, 8.1.1, 9.10.25, 10.5.7, 12.13.16, 13.5.6.) Regularly cited with 1 Jn. 3.2 (as below); see esp. trin. 15.8.14-15.9.16. This text gave rise to Manichean criticism that while Mani saw directly, Paul had only dim and indirect vision; A. refutes that view at c. Faust. 15.6, 32.18, c. Fel. 1.11.

    sumus sumus C D G O Ver.:   simus S Maur. Knöll Skut.

    nondum apparuit: 1 Jn. 3.2, `carissimi, nunc filii dei sumus et nondum apparuit quid erimus, scimus quoniam cum apparuerit similes ei erimus, quoniam videbimus eum sicut est.'

    attendit per retia: Cant. 2.9 (VL), `prospiciens per retia'.

    inflammavit . . . post odorem: See on 10.27.38, `fragrasti . . . exarsi'.

    currimus post odorem eius: Cant. 1.3, `trahe me, post te curremus in odorem unguentorum tuorum'; en. Ps. 90. s. 2.13, `amemus et imitemur; curramus post unguenta eius, quomodo dicitur in canticis canticorum: “post odorem unguentorum tuorum curremus.” venit enim et olevit, et odor ipsius implevit mundum. unde odor? de caelo. sequere ergo ad caelum, si non falsum respondes cum dicitur, sursum cor, sursum cogitationem, sursum amorem, sursum spem, ne putrescat in terra.' Cf. on 9.7.16, `fragraret . . . post te'.

    similes: 1 Jn. 3.2 resumed: implicit abandonment of the regio dissimilitudinis.

    videre nostrum: As G-M remarked, videre is a substantive, but it is debatable whether nostrum is adjectival (G-M: `our seeing will then be a “seeing-as-it-is”') or predicative (`to see just as is, Lord, is ours, but is not yet in our possession').

    text of 13.16.19


    es [1] . . . scis [2] . . . vis [3] . . . essentia [1] . . . scientia [2] . . . voluntas [3].

    anima mea tamquam terra sine aqua tibi: Ps. 142.6, `anima mea velut terra sine aqua tibi'; en. Ps. 142.11, `sitire tibi possum, me inrigare non possum. “anima mea velut terra sine aqua tibi,” quia sitivit anima mea in deum vivum. . . . discreta est aqua, apparuit arida anima mea [Gn. 1.10]; inriga eam, quia “velut terra sine aqua tibi.”' Sim. at en. Ps. 65.11.

    fons vitae: Ps. 35.10, `quoniam apud te fons vitae, in lumine tuo videbimus lumen' (see on 3.8.16, and cf. 13.4.5); Io. ev. tr. 13.5, `in terra aliud est fons, aliud lumen. sitiens quaeris fontem, et ut pervenias ad fontem, quaeris lucem.'

    text of 13.17.20


    amaricantes: Ps. 77.1, `generatio prava et americans; generatio quae cor non direxit suum, et non est creditus cum deo spiritus eius'; Ps. 65.7, `qui amaricant, non exaltentur in semetipsis'; and elsewhere in Pss. en. Ps. 64.9, `mare enim in figura dicitur saeculum hoc, salsitate amarum, procellis turbulentum, ubi homines cupiditatibus perversis et pravis facti sunt velut pisces invicem se devorantes. attendite mare malum, mare amarum, fluctibus saevum, attendite qualibus hominibus plenum sit'; adn. Iob on 38.8, `“mare”: populos amaricantes amore terrenorum.' H. Rondet, Aug. Mag. 2.695n4, `Amaricantes, ce sont les pécheurs, dont il est dit: “inamaricaverunt deum, qui peccando in eam aegritudinem devenerunt,” (en. Ps. 5.15), les pécheurs livrés aux oeuvres de mort: “`similiter amaricantes qui habitant in sepulchris': id est omni modo mortuos, occupatos in operibus mortuis. hi enim amaricant resistendo iustitiae . . . isti autem amaricantes qui habitant in sepulchris.” (en. Ps. 67.8), pécheurs figurés dans l'ancient Testament pars les Amorrhéens: "Amorrhaei interpretantur amaricantes. . . . nisi enim mendacium et simulatio praecedat, non sunt amaricantes in ecclesia." (en. Ps. 134.20)'

    congregarentur aquae: Gn. 1.9.

    tuum est et mare: Ps. 94.5, `quoniam ipsius est mare et ipse fecit illud, et aridam terram manus eius finxerunt'; en. Ps. 94.9, `est enim mare mundus iste, sed et mare deus fecit, nec saevire fluctus possunt, nisi usque ad litus, ubi ipse terminum posuit. nulla ergo temptatio, nisi acceperit mensuram a domino. . . . esto tu arida terra, siti gratiam dei, ut veniat super te imber dulcis, inveniat in te fructum. non permittit fluctus operire quod sevit.'

    et mare et mare C D G O Maur. Ver.:   mare S Knöll Skut.
    The passage was regularized to match the Psalm text, but there is purpose to A.'s `et' : even the sea, the congregatio amaricantium, is God's.

    figis limites: Job 38.10-11, `et posui illi terminos, imponens claustra et portas, (11) et dixi, huc usque venies, et non transibis sed in temetipso comminuentur fluctus tui'; adn. Iob on 38.10-11, `“et posui . . . portas”: terminos quibus saevitia cohibeatur, non ut nihil adfligat, sed quo usque exerceat; claustra, ut iniusti non progrediantur, portas, ut ab eis iusti egrediantur. . . . sicut ipse diabolus modum accepit quo usque adfligeret Iob, ita illud mare quo usque persequeretur ecclesiam.' See on 2.2.2, `modus'.

    progredi: See on 7.18.24.

    aquae aquae S Knöll Skut.:   atque C D G O Maur. Ver.
    The latter reading has every reason for our support (MSS, difficilior lectio) except that it is palpably wrong.

    ordine [3].

    text of 13.17.21


    animas sitientes: Ps. 62.2, `sitivit tibi anima mea'; en. Ps. 62.5, `sunt enim qui sitiunt, sed non deo. . . . ardent omnes homines desiderio; et vix invenitur qui dicat, “sitivit tibi anima mea.” sitiunt enim homines saeculo, et non se intellegunt in deserto esse Idumaeae, ubi debet sitire anima ipsorum deo.' Cf. 1.18.28, `sitientem delectationes tuas'.

    alio fine: Ablative of means with distinctas (cf. 13.17.20, `idem namque illis finis est').

    det fructum suum: Ps. 84.13, `etenim dominus dabit suavitatem et terra nostra dabit fructum suum'; en. Ps. 84.15, `ecce locuti sumus vobis verbum dei, semen sparsimus devotis cordibus, tamquam sulcata invenientes pectora vestra aratro confessionis; . . . et nisi deus pluerit, quid prodest quod seminatur?'

    te iubente: 10.29.40, `da quod iubes'.

    germinat anima nostra: Gn. 1.11. The allegorical reading is imposed on a text that is only implicitly present. Hence `opera misericordiae' = `fructum suum' (cf. 13.24.37, `in operibus misericordiae').

    secundum genus: Gn. 1.12. G-M: `i.e. (in A.'s allegorical interpretation) appropriate to our condition of human weakness and mutual dependence.' Contrast 13.22.32.

    diligens proximum: Mt. 22.39, `diligens proximum tuum sicut teipsum' (see on 12.26.36); but cf. Mt. 19.19, `honora patrem et matrem et diliges proximum tuum sicut teipsum' - from 13.19.24, Mt. 19.16-22 plays an important role (Warns).

    habens in se semen: G-M: `This A. interprets to mean that we learn others' needs from our own.'

    secundum similitudinem: Gn. 1.12; by contrast to `secundum genus', where we would expect `secundum speciem' : but the correlation between species [2] and similitudo (7.10.16, `regione dissimilitudinis') is strong.

    quemadmodum nobis vellemus opem ferri: Mt. 7.12, `omnia ergo, quaecumque vultis ut faciant vobis homines, ita et vos facite eis; haec est enim lex et prophetae.'

    beneficum beneficum O Maur. Skut. Ver.:   beneficium C D G S Knöll

    umbraculum: en. Ps. 139.12, `desiderium enim aestus facit; umbraculum autem domini temperat desiderium, ut possimus refrenare quo rapiebamur, ut non ita exaestuemus, ut ad laqueum perducamur.'

    text of 13.18.22


    hilaritatem: en. Ps. 91.5, `qui sunt qui psallunt? qui cum hilaritate faciunt bene. in psallendo enim hilaritas est.'

    facultatem: Cf. s. 85.4.5, `decimas dabant scribae et pharisaei, ne forte aliquid magnum facere te putes, quia frangis panem pauperi: et vis est millesima ista facultatum tuarum'; en. Ps. 49.13, `sed non habes facultatem frangendi panem, non habes domum quo inducas, non habes vestem qua cooperias: da calicem aquae frigidae, mitte duo minuta in gazophylacium.'

    oriatur de terra veritas: Ps. 84.12, `veritas de terra orta est et iustitia de caelo prospexit' (n.b. Ps. 84.13 in 13.17.21 above); en. Ps. 84.13-14, `“veritas de terra orta est”: Christus de femina natus est. “veritas de terra orta est”: filius dei de carne processit. quid est veritas? filius dei. quid est terra? caro. . . . ut iustitia de caelo prospiceret, id est, ut iustificarentur homines divina gratia, veritas nata est de Maria virgine; ut posset pro illis iustificandis offerre sacrificium, sacrificium passionis, sacrificium crucis. . . . (14) possumus hinc dicere alterum sensum. “veritas de terra orta est”: confessio ab homine. . . . confitere peccata tua, et orietur de te veritas.'

    fiant . . . luminaria: Gn. 1.14.

    frangamus . . . non despiciamus: Is. 58.7-8 (Vg. modified in light of doctr. chr. 2.12.17), `frange esurienti panem tuum, et egenos vagosque induc in domum tuam; cum videris nudum, operi eum, et domesticos seminis tui ne despexeris. (8) tunc erumpet temporaneum lumen tuum [Vg., for `temp. lum. tu.', reads `quasi mane'] et sanitas tua citius orietur et anteibit faciem tuam iustitia tua et gloria domini conliget te.' (Verse 8 shows the verbal resemblance to Ps. 84.12 that suggested the link here, and n.b. `conliget te' [see on 1.3.3].) Here the `breaking of the bread' is a metaphor for exegesis (s. 95.1, `scripturas sacras exponentes vobis, quasi panes frangimus vobis'; cf. s. 57.7.7, Io. ev. tr. 34.1; see M. Pontet, L'Exégèse de S. Augustin prédicateur [Paris, n. d. (1944)], 39nn17-18).

    appareamus sicut luminaria: Phil. 2.15-16, `in medio nationis tortuosae et perversae, inter quos apparetis sicut luminaria in mundo (16) verbum vitae habentes'; text from en. Ps. 93.3-6, `similitudo de luminaribus data est ad sanctos, ut sine murmuratione sint in natione tortuosa et perversa. (4) sed ne quisquam propterea putet colenda esse et adoranda luminaria caeli . . . prius hoc explicemus in nomine Christi . . . . (5) tales enim sancti in quibus est verbum vitae, de conversatione quam habent in caelo, despiciunt omnia iniqua quae fiunt in terra; et quomodo luminaria in caelo per diem et per noctem procedunt, peragunt itinera sua.' Cf. 1 Jn. 1.1, `de verbo vitae'.

    appareamus: Who are `we'? Best taken as sancti (en. Ps. 93.3 as above), or spiritales (1 Cor. 3.1).

    disputas: Is. 1.18, `et venite et disputemus dicit dominus' (text from en. Ps. 61.22). (Cf. Is. 1.16-18, quoted on 13.19.24, `“et venite, disputemus,” dicit dominus,' and cf. 13.18.23, `haec nobiscum disputas sapientissime, deus noster, in libro tuo, firmamento tuo.') G-M: `Here “disputo” seems to bear the sense of “teach” (from the practice of teaching by disputation).'

    dividas: Gn. 1.4.

    manifestata per orbem: 2 Tim. 1.9-10, `manifestata est autem per adventum salvatoris nostri.'

    dividant inter diem et noctem: Gn. 1.14-18.

    quia . . . et quia . . . et quia . . . et quia: Introduce the four scriptural quotations that explain the role of the luminaria in this world.

    vetera transierunt: 2 Cor. 5.17, `si quis ergo in Christo, nova creatura; vetera transierunt, ecce, facta sunt omnia nova'; c. Faust. 11.8, `itaque nunc “vetera transierunt” secundum spem, quia modo iam non est tempus veteris testamenti quo temporale atque carnale regnum expectetur a deo; et “facta sunt omnia nova” secundum eandem spem, ut regnum caelorum, ubi nulla erit mors atque corruptio, promissum teneamus. in resurrectione autem mortuorum non iam secundum spem, sed secundum rem et vetera transibunt . . . et fient omnia nova'.

    propior est nostra salus: Rom. 13.11, `et hoc scientes tempus, quia hora est iam nos de somno surgere, nunc enim propior est nostra salus quam cum credidimus.' (For Rom. 13.12-13, see on 8.12.29.) Also linked with Gn. 1.4 at s. Guelf. 5.4; linked with Eph. 5.8 at Gn. litt. 4.23.40, `qui tamen dies nisi rursus in comparatione illius diei quo aequales angelis facti videbimus deum, sicuti est, ipse quoque nox esset, non hic prophetiae lucerna indigeremus'; sim. (with the same other quotations) at Io. ev. tr. 35.8.

    propior propior C2 D2 G2 Maur. Knöll Skut. Ver.:   proprior C1 D1 G1 OS

    benedicis coronam anni tui: Ps. 64.12, `benedices coronam anni benignitatis tuae'; en. Ps. 64.16, `seminatur modo, crescit quod seminatur, erit et messis. et modo super semen superseminavit inimicus zizania; et exorti sunt mali inter bonos, pseudochristiani, similem habentes herbam, sed non parem fructum. . . . ille est finis anni, messis saeculi. . . . coronam ubi audis, gloria victoriae significatur. vince diabolum, et habebis coronam.'

    mittens operarios in messem tuam: Mt. 9.38, `rogate ergo dominum messis, ut mittat operarios in messem suam.'

    alii laboraverunt: Jn. 4.38, `ego misi vos metere quod vos non laborastis: alii laboraverunt, et vos in laborem eorum introistis'; Io. ev. tr. 15.32 (combining Jn. 4.38 with Mt. 13.39), `ad istam ergo messem non apostoli, sed angeli mittentur. messores, inquit, angeli sunt. ista ergo messis crescit inter zizania, et expectat purgari in fine. illa vero messis iam matura erat, quo prius missi sunt discipuli, ubi prophetae laboraverunt.'

    cuius messis in fine est: Mt. 13.39, `inimicus autem, qui seminavit ea, est diabolus, messis vero consummatio saeculi est, messores autem angeli sunt.'

    benedicis annos iusti: Ps. 64.12 (see above).

    tu autem idem . . . deficiunt: Ps. 101.28, `tu idem ipse es et anni tui non deficient' (last occurrence in conf.; most recent at 12.11.13, and cf. 7.21.27; see generally on 1.6.10).

    text of 13.18.23


    This paragraph is to be taken with the last; the traditional division (beginning new paragraph with `quoniam quidem') blurs the connection. Knöll (followed by G-M) introduced the comma after `super terram' here, thus taking up the next `paragraph' in mid-sentence; Skutella and Verheijen follow the traditional division.

    The text on the table here is Gn. 1.16, `et fecit deus duo luminaria magna . . .'

    datur per spiritum: The gifts of the spirit: 1 Cor. 12.7-11, `unicuique autem datur manifestatio spiritus ad utilitatem: (8) alii quidem per spiritum datur sermo sapientiae, alii autem sermo scientiae secundum eundem spiritum, (9) alteri autem fides in eodem spiritu, alii donatio curationum in uno spiritu, (10) alii operationes virtutum, alii prophetia, alii diiudicatio spirituum, alteri genera linguarum, [alii interpretatio linguarum], (11) omnia autem haec operatur unus et idem spiritus, dividens propria unicuique prout vult.' The bracketed words are omitted here and at div. qu. Simp. 2.1.8 and trin. 5.13.14. en. Ps. 135.8 includes interpretatio (one of the en. Ps. `dictated' when the collection was being assembled: with a biblical text at hand?); a curtailed list from memory at Io. ev. tr. 14.10 and 32.8. A. here ignores Is. 11.2-3, the other biblical list of `gifts of the spirit,' which he commends at, e.g., s. 347.2.2 and s. dom. m. 1.4.11-12

    sermo sapientiae . . . sermo scientiae: div. qu. Simp. 2.2.3, `quamquam et in ipsis hominibus solet discerni a sapientia scientia, ut etiam apostolus dicit, . . . [quoting 1 Cor. 12.8], in deo autem nimirum non sunt haec duo, sed unum. et in hominibus quidem ita discerni probabiliter solent, ut sapientia pertineat ad intellectum aeternorum, scientia vero ad ea quae sensibus corporis experimur.' So trin. 12.14.22, `in hac differentia intellegendum est ad contemplationem sapientiam, ad actionem scientiam pertinere'; sim. at trin. 12.15.25. There is a biographical side to this: it was sapientia that A. fell in love with at age 18 (3.4.7), and sapientia = Christ: trin. 13.19.24, `scientia ergo nostra Christus est, sapientia quoque nostra idem Christus est.' See Marrou 561-569; F. Cayre, Année théologique augustinienne 4(1943), 433-56; Holte 243ff; G. Madec, RA 10(1975), 77-85.

    in principio in principio codd. Maur. Knöll Skut.:   principio Ver.   comparing (at his ed., p. xxxviii) his own reading in principia noctis below, and arguing that since the moon and stars do not shine only at the beginning of the night, so also it is inappropriate to say `in principio' here (he takes `principio' alone as apposition with `luce').
    But surely here A. aims to evoke the delight of early morning light; cf. Gn. litt. imp. 13.42, `ergo initium illud principatum intellegere debemus, quia et in die nihil est inter illa quae videntur sole excellentius et in nocte nihil luna vel stellis. unde illa etiam ambiguitas iam non moveat, et credamus stellas sic positas ut ad initium noctis, id est principatum, pertineant.'

    luminare minus: = luna et stellae.

    omnia sacramenta: 1 Cor. 13.2, `et si habuero omnem scientiam, et sciam omnia sacramenta' (where sacramenta renders Gk. musth/ria; text from Io. ev. tr. 7.3). A. assumes that the catalogues of 1 Cor. 12 and 1 Cor. 13 are equivalent (div. qu. Simp. 2.1.8, `quo in loco [1 Cor. 13] manifestum est eum munera illa commemorasse quae spiritus sancti divisionibus dantur, sicut superius dicit [quoting 1 Cor. 12]'; cf. en. Ps. 146.10).

    quo gaudet praedictus dies: BA ad loc., `Le sens de ce texte s'éclaire, croyons-nous, en le comparant avec sermo 5,7 ou Augustin commente la parole de Jacob au terme de son combat avec l'Ange: dimitte me, quia iam mane est (Gn. 32.27): "mane in luce veritatis intelleximus, et sapientiae, per quam facta sunt omnia"; le jour, c'est donc la vérité sereine des réalités éternelles, la nuit, c'est la connaissance encore obscure des réalités temporelles.'

    praedictus dies: Of Rom. 13.12 (in 13.18.22),

    tantum in principio noctis sunt: Ps. 135.7-9, `qui fecit luminaria magna . . . (8) solem in potestatem diei . . . (9) lunam et stellas in potestatem noctis.'

    principio principio G2 S Maur. Knöll Skut.:   principia CDG1 O Ver.  (`servent à être des lumières conductrices pour notre nuit' with argumentation as reported above).
    But (as recorded in the VL [Beuron] ed. of Gn.) in Gn. litt. imp. A. has initium throughout; in Gn. c. man. and Gn. litt., inchoationem, in s. frg. (PL 39.1726), ad potestatem (< Ps. 135?); at civ. 11.19, MSS diverge between principia (which would have to mean `rulers') and principio. A.'s citations elsewhere are decisive in context: Gn. litt. imp. 13.42,9 `dictum erat “initium diei” et “initium noctis”, quod hic exponit dicendo “praesint diei et nocti”. ergo “initium” illud “principatum” intellegere debemus, quia et in die nihil est inter illa quae videntur sole excellentius et in nocte nihil luna vel stellis.' Gn. litt. 2.15.32, `sed qui per “inchoationem noctis” non intellegit nisi principatum; nam et graecum verbum hoc magis indicat, cum dictum est “archen”.' 10

    ille . . . servus tuus: Paul (introducing citations from 1 Cor.).

    quasi spiritalibus, sed quasi carnalibus: 1 Cor. 3.1 (quoted below; cf. 13.13.14, before that 12.30.41, 12.27.37, 12.17.24); last substantive echoes of this verse.

    sapientiam loquitur inter perfectos: 1 Cor. 2.6, `sapientiam autem loquimur inter perfectos, sapientiam vero non huius saeculi neque principum huius saeculi. (7) sed loquimur dei sapientiam in mysterio, quae abscondita est.'

    animalis autem homo: 1 Cor. 2.14, `animalis autem homo non percepit quae sunt spiritus dei.' trin. 7.6.11, `quod [sc. mysterium trinitatis] animalis homo non percipit. non enim potest cogitare nisi moles et spatia vel minuta vel grandia volitantibus in animo eius phantasmatibus tamquam imaginibus corporum.' 11 See BA 71.837-838 for other refs.

    tamquam parvulus in Christo: 1 Cor. 3.1-2, `ergo fratres, non potui vobis loqui quasi spiritalibus sed quasi carnalibus, tamquam parvulis in Christo. (2) lac vobis potum dedi, non escam, nondum enim poteratis.' Heb. 5.12-14, `et facti estis opus habentes lacte, non solido cibo. (13) omnis enim qui lactatur inexpertus est verbum iustitiae; infans est enim. (14) perfectorum autem est solidus cibus, eorum qui per habitum exercitatos habent sensus ad separandum bonum a malo.' Cf. Io. ev. tr. 98.3-4 (quoting together 1 Cor. 3.1-2, 1 Cor. 2.6, Heb. 5.12-14), with pronounced autobiographical application to A.'s past. Other combinations of two or more of the four passages are frequent (Warns; cf. La Bonnardière REAug 3[1957], 137-162).

    disputas: See 13.18.22 and Is. 1.18 quoted there.

    text of 13.19.24


    `sed prius . . .': The use of quotation marks (not in earlier editions) is tendentious. Editors and translators who mark scriptural echoes with quotations or italics commonly mark some of these phrases, but the whole construct seems to require special treatment. The determining feature is the use of second person here, where the last sentence of 13.18.23 has `disputas', of A. addressing God, meaning that these second person verbs must be part of God's answer (disputatio) to A. See on 13.18.22 and 13.18.23 for disputare = `instruct'. The interpenetration of Is. and Gn. is noteworthy; not the pattern Knauer observed of Ersetzung as elsewhere, where the non-Gn. text precedes and explains, but rather analogous to the method at 7.9.13, where A. reads the platonicorum libri, but finds in them the words of John and Paul. Here he is still more subtle: the Matthew passage below is now adduced for interpretation in light of Genesis-as-interpreted-through-Isaiah. The `avoid evil and do good' of the ordinary precepts corresponds to the first two elements in the Is./Gn. conflation; and the counsels of perfection correspond to `becoming luminaria'.

    This paragraph is especially beautiful and direct. Virtually every word is scriptural, but the creative interweaving of texts makes a new whole, faithful to A.'s reading of the individual texts. A most determined fidelity to the texts is nevertheless compelled, in the nature of interpretation itself, to shape the texts in a way that others, equally determined to be equally faithful to the texts, would not accept and would stigmatize as mere `Augustinianism' - when for A. it was no such thing, but `scripturism', plain and simple.

    lavamini: Is. 1.16-18, `lavamini, mundi estote; auferte nequitias ab animis vestris a conspectu oculorum meorum; cessate a nequitiis vestris; (17) discite benefacere: quaerite iudicium, subvenite oppresso, iudicate pupillo, et iustificate viduam. (18) et venite, et disputemus, dicit dominus' (text corrected against en. Ps. 103. s. 4.18). (This from the chapter of Isaiah that seems to have defeated A.'s attempts at comprehension in 386-7: see on 9.5.13).

    quaerebat dives ille: Mt. 19.16-22, `et ecce unus accedens ait illi, “magister bone, quid boni faciam ut habeam vitam aeternam?” (17) qui dixit ei, “quid me interrogas de bono? unus est bonus, deus. si vis venire ad vitam, serva mandata.” (18) dicit illi, “quae?” Iesus autem dixit, “non homicidium facias, non adulteres, non falsum testimonium dicas, non fureris, (19) honora patrem et matrem, diliges proximum tuum tamquam te ipsum.” (20) dicit illi adulescens, “omnia haec custodivi a iuventute mea: quid adhuc mihi deest?” (21) ait illi Iesus, “si vis perfectus esse, unum tibi deest: vade, vende omnia quae habes et da pauperibus - habebis thesaurum in caelo - et veni, sequere me.” (22) cum audisset autem adolescens verbum, abscessit tristis, erat enim habens multas divitias.' (Text modified against s. 85.1.) This passage marks a further recurrence of the autobiographical element: Mt. 19.21 was the verse that converted Antony, whose story lies just beneath the surface (and often breaks through the surface) of Bk. 8: 8.1.2, 8.6.14-15, and 8.12.29.

    dicat ei . . . dicat ei: The subjunctive has the effect of generalizing the message (in other words, of allegorizing it): wherever the question is asked, let the one true teacher respond. . . .

    separet a se . . . nequitiae: A gloss by A.; cf. 1 Cor. 5.8, `in fermento malitiae et malignitatis' (text from en. Ps. 39.13), but note that A.'s words also recall both Heb. 5.14 (`ad separandum bonum a malo', quoted on 13.18.23) and his own words (13.17.20, `amaricantes').

    non occidat . . . dicat: Cf. Exod. 20.13ff, the decalogue, but the proximate source is the reading of the Exodus text proposed by Jesus in the Mt. passage quoted above.

    spinae: Anticipates the parable of the sower, more explicitly invoked below.

    inter quos loquitur sapientiam: 1 Cor. 2.6-7 (see on 13.18.23).

    quid distribuat: The indirect question reattaches the discussion to the Gn. text nominally under examination.

    thesaurus tuus: Mt. 6.21, `ubi enim thesaurus tuus, ibi et cor tuum.' s. 60.7 (quoting both Mt. 19.21 and 6.21), `leva, inquit, cor in caelum [= `sursum cor'], ne computrescat in terra.'

    contristata: Lk. 18.23 (the Lucan version of the story of the rich young man), `his ille auditis, contristatus est, quia dives erat valde.'

    spinae offocaverunt verbum: Mt. 13.7, `alia autem ceciderunt in spinas, et creverunt spinae et suffocaverunt ea'; Mt. 13.22, `qui autem est seminatus in spinis, hic est qui verbum audit et sollicitudo saeculi et fallacia divitiarum suffocat verbum et sine fructu efficitur.' This recalls the parable of the messores (cf. 13.18.22).

    offocaverunt offocaverunt C D O Maur. Ver.:   suffocaverunt G S Knöll Skut.
    s. 73.1.1ff, `aliud inter spinas, quod suffocatum est, et fecundari non potuit . . . (3) . . . nolite curis et cupiditatibus saecularibus offocare bonum semen, quod vobis spargitur laboribus nostris.'

    text of 13.19.25


    vos autem genus electum: 1 Pet. 2.9, `vos autem genus electum, regale sacerdotium, gens sancta, populus in adoptione, ut virtutes enuntietis eius qui vos de tenebris vocavit in illud admirabile lumen suum' (text from pecc. mer. 1.27.41). Note the verbal link between `enuntietis' in 1 Pet. (in some other texts, `annuntietis') and `annuntiet' here (< Ps. 18.2) and cf. for the same verb also Is. 52.7 and Rom. 10.15 quoted below.

    infirma mundi . . . et confundite fortia: 1 Cor. 1.27-29, `sed quae stulta sunt mundi elegit deus ut confundat sapientes, et infirma mundi elegit deus ut confundat fortia. . . . (29) ut non glorietur coram deo omnis caro'; `elegit' offers a link with 1 Pet. 2.9, `electum'. Io. ev. tr. 7.17 and en. Ps. 65.4 connect this verse to Nathanael, an exemplum of infirmitas among the elect; cf. en. Ps. 149.14. The same verse at 8.4.9.

    qui dimisistis omnia: Mt. 19.27, `coepit Petrus ei dicere, “ecce nos dimisimus omnia et secuti sumus te”' (for text cf. en. Ps. 90. s. 1.9, and cf. Milne 55; Vg. has `reliquimus' for `dimisimus'); Mk. 10.28 and Lk. 18.28 are identical. en. Ps. 103. s. 3.16, `Petrus ut sequeretur dominum, novimus quod piscator erat, quid potuit dimittere? vel frater eius Andreas, vel filii Zebedaei Iohannes et Iacobus, etiam ipsi piscatores; et tamen quid dixerunt? “ecce nos dimisimus omnia, et secuti sumus te.”' In Mt., this is the immediate sequel of the story of the rich young man, with whom the apostles (piscatores) are contrasted; see on 13.19.24.

    speciosi pedes: Is. 52.7 (Vg.), `quam pulchri super montes pedes annuntiantis,' quoted in Rom. 10.15, `sicut scriptum est, quam speciosi pedes qui annuntiant pacem, qui annuntiant bona.' s. Guelf. 24.2, `pes futurus [i.e., Saul/Paul] pedes Christi calcabat: evangelium domini per orbem terrarum portaturus hominibus, calcabat quod futurus ipse erat. quam speciosi pedes, propheta dicit, doctor ipse commemorat, eorum qui annuntiant pacem, qui annuntiant bona!' Speciosi pedes therefore = evangelists (en. Ps. 51.9; cf. en. Ps. 140.8). The connection between Rom. 10.15 and Ps. 18.5 (quoted below in 13.20.26) recurs at en. Ps. 78.3 and 87.13.

    lucete in firmamento: Gn. 1.17.

    ut caeli enarrent gloriam eius: Ps. 18.2-5, `caeli enarrant gloriam dei et opera manuum eius annuntiat firmamentum. (3) dies diei eructat verbum et nox nocti annuntiat scientiam. (4) non sunt loquelae, neque sermones, quorum non audiantur voces eorum. (5) in omnem terram exiit sonus eorum, et in fines orbis terrae verba eorum.' This text is constantly in mind through the next paragraph. en. Ps. 18. en. 1.2, `“caeli . . . dei.” iusti evangelistae in quibus deus tamquam in caelis habitat, exponunt gloriam domini nostri Iesu Christi sive gloriam qua glorificavit patrem filius super terram.'

    dividentes inter lucem . . . et tenebras: Gn. 1.14-18.

    parvulorum: Ps. 18.8, `testimonium domini fidele, sapientiam praestans parvulis'; en. Ps. 18. en. 2.8, `hoc est spiritus sanctus'; en. Ps. 18. en. 1.8, `quae abscondita sunt a sapientibus et revelata parvulis, quoniam deus superbis resistit, humilibus autem dat gratiam.'

    parvulorum, sed non desperatorum: s. 200.3.4, `venit [Christus] stulta mundi eligere, ut confunderet sapientes, . . . ut nullus magnus superbiret, nullus infimus desperaret.' en. Ps. 38.3, `“carnalibus” non tamen desperandis, sed nutriendis. sequitur enim “tamquam parvulis in Christo”'.

    dies . . . scientiae: Ps. 18.3 (just quoted); en. Ps. 18. en. 1.3, `spiritus spiritalibus profert plenitudinem incommutabilis sapientiae dei, quod verbum in principio deus apud deum est. “et nox . . . scientiam,” et mortalitas carnis tamquam longe positis carnalibus, fidem insinuando, annuntiat futuram scientiam'; en. Ps. 18. en. 2.4, `est et alius intellectus: dies diei, nox nocti, hoc est, spiritus spiritui, caro carni. est alius: dies diei, spiritales spiritalibus; et nox nocti, carnales carnalibus. [1 Cor. 3.1] utrique enim audiunt, etsi non utrique similiter sapiunt.' (Sim. link with 1 Cor. 3.1 at en. Ps. 73.19.) For sapientia/scientia, see on 13.18.23 (< 1 Cor. 12.8).

    luna et stellae: = luminare minus (see on 13.18.23).

    factus est subito de caelo sonus: Act. 2.2-3, `factus est subito de caelo sonus, quasi ferretur flatus vehemens, (3) et visae sunt illis linguae divisae velut ignis, qui et insedit super unumquemque illorum, et coeperunt loqui linguis, sicut spiritus dabat eis pronuntiare' (text adapted from s. 266.2; on A.'s Acts text, cf. Burkitt, Old Latin and Itala [Cambridge, 1896], 57-8). Baptism has been a focus of the interpretation of the Spirit's work in the world up to here, hence Pentecost is the logical next step.

    verbum vitae habentia: Phil. 2.15-16, `inter quos lucetis sicut luminaria in mundo (16) verbum vitae habentes' (see on 13.18.22); 1 Jn. 1.1, `quod fuit ab initio, quod audivimus, quod vidimus oculis nostris, quod pespeximus et manus nostrae contrectaverunt, de verbo vitae.'

    ubique discurrite: Wisd. 3.7, `fulgebunt iusti et tamquam scintillae in harundineto discurrent' (not in La Bonnardière, Biblia Augustiniana: Sagesse).

    vos enim estis: Mt. 5.14-15, `vox estis lumen mundi . . . (15) neque accendunt lucernam et ponunt eam sub modio sed supra candelabrum, ut luceat omnibus qui in domo sunt.' Combined with Ps. 18.2-3 at en. Ps. 18. en. 2.4 (see above).

    sub modio: s. dom. m. 1.6.17, `quid putamus? ita esse dictum “sub modio,” ut occultatio tantum lucernae accipienda sit . . .? an aliquid etiam modius significat, ut hoc sit ponere lucernam sub modio, superiora facere corporis commoda quam praedicationem veritatis'.

    exaltatus est: Phil. 2.9, `et deus illum exaltavit' (see on 7.9.14).

    innotescite: Cf. perhaps (Knauer 76n1) Ps. 78.10, `et innotescat in nationibus coram oculis nostris vindicta sanguinis servorum tuorum qui effusus est.' Cf. more surely, Mt. 28.19, `euntes ergo docete omnes gentes', at the ascension, the last message to the apostles before the Pentecost gift of the spirit.

    text of 13.20.26


    Pentecost in Acts is followed by preaching and widespread baptism; so here (`ad imbuendas gentes nomine tuo in baptismo tuo'). The texture abruptly thins out here for a few paragraphs.

    concipiat . . . vivarum: Gn. 1.20-22.

    separantes: Jer. 15.19, `haec dicit dominus: “si converteris, convertam te et ante faciem meam stabis, et si separaveris pretiosum a vili, quasi os meum eris. convertentur ipsi ad te, et tu non converteris ad eos.”'

    fluctus temptationum: Same expression at 1.11.18.

    in baptismo tuo: Mt. 28.19, `euntes ergo docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos in nomine patris et filii et spiritus sancti' (see 13.19.25). For `imbuendas', see on 8.2.4; also used of sacraments at 13.20.28 and 13.34.49; only exception in conf. is 13.26.39, quoting Paul's words in Phil. 4.12 (VL).

    magnalia mirabilia: Act. 2.11 (Vg.), `audimus loquentes eos nostris linguis magnalia dei'; cf. Ps. 105.21, `obliti sunt deum qui salvavit eos, qui fecit magnalia in Aegypto'; Ps. 70.19, `deus, usque in altissima quae fecisti magnalia'. en. Ps. 30. en. 2 s. 3.9, `ascendit enim in caelum, sedet ad dexteram patris, post decem dies misit spiritum sanctum; impleti sunt spiritu sancto discipuli, coeperunt praedicare magnalia Christi.' en. Ps. 98.1, `per omnes litteras antiquorum patrum nostrorum, qui scripserunt verba dei et magnalia dei'. Gn. litt. 8.1.3, `miraculorum - quae magnalia nominantur'.

    tamquam ceti: Gn. 1.20-21. For spelling ceti, see TLL s.v. Whales in A. (esp. from Genesis and Jonah) at Gn. c. man. 1.23.39, 1.24.43, Gn. litt. 3.1.1, 9.14.25, ep. 102.30, en. Ps. 68. s. 1.6, civ. 18.44.

    neque enim sunt loquellae neque sermones: Ps. 18.4-5 (see on 13.19.25). en. Ps. 18. en. 2.5, `legite Actus Apostolorum, quomodo, veniente super eos spiritu sancto, omnes impleti sunt illo et loquebantur linguis omnium gentium, sicut spiritus dabat eis pronuntiare. . . . ideo et nos hic loquimur. sonus enim ille ad nos usque pervenit, sonus qui in omnem terram exiit, et haereticus ecclesiam non intrat.' The same verse of Pentecost at c. litt. Pet. 2.32.74.

    benedicendo multiplicasti haec: Gn. 1.22.

    text of 13.20.27


    rerum notitiae: Cf. 13.18.23, `ceterae notitiae donorum'.

    lumina sapientiae et scientiae: See on 13.18.23

    multiplicantur in benedictione tua: Gn. 1.22.

    res una: The implicit argument is that scripture imitates life, that the book of Nature speaks in its great diversity with a single message (God), as scripture speaks the same things over and over in many ways. The tension between unity and plurality in the world is thus resolved in the same way as the comparable tension in scriptural texts.

    figuretur: The verb in this sense is almost exclusively Christian in usage, from Tertullian on (TLL s.v.). In conf. 1-10, figura and related words were always used of visible shape; this is the first reference to the process of speech. From now on (cf. 13.24.36, 13.24.37, 13.25.38, `in allegoria figurari', 13.34.49) the characteristic exegetical usage is used exclusively. First used in this sense in A. at div. qu. 58.2, and of particular use in anti-Manichean polemic: see Mayer 1.358, 2.458-461.

    aquae produxerunt haec: Gn. 1.21 (cf. `eiecerunt', an alternate reading in some VL texts of Gn. for `produxerunt').

    in verbo tuo: `at your creative command': see on 11.5.7, and cf. 13.21.29, 13.21.31, 13.34.49; but the implication is also that the act allows and requires interpretation; cf. `in evangelio tuo' : the key to interpretation is in the gospels.

    causa: To be taken in a limited sense, for God's actions are strictly un-caused; similarly at 13.21.29.

    procederent procederent C D2 G O2 S Maur. Knöll Skut.:   praecederent D1:   producerent O1 Ver.  (but producerent is the vulgar error of a scribe who thinks he knows what he is doing; bogus assimilation).

    text of 13.20.28


    pulchra [2]: cf. `tu inerrabiliter pulchrior'.

    si non esset lapsus Adam: Gn. c. man. 1.19.30 (that without sin Adam would have propagated only spiritually), `licet enim nobis eam etiam spiritaliter accipere, ut in carnalem fecunditatem post peccatum conversa esse credatur. erat enim prius casta coniunctio masculi et feminae, huius ad regendum, illius ad obtemperandum adcommodata: et spiritalis fetus intellegibilium et immortalium gaudiorum replens terram, id est, vivificans corpus, et dominans eius.' (retr. 1.10.2 on this passage of Gn. c. man.: `si non potest alio modo dictum videri nisi ut putentur illi homines non habituri fuisse filios homines nisi peccassent, omnino non approbo.')

    utero: G-M (understatement): `A remarkable example of catachresis. It is to be explained, no doubt, by the fact that “Adam” is used generically rather than personally.'

    salsugo: The word attracts attention, and may reflect some as yet undetected VL text; it occurs 3x in Vg. (but one of those occurrences, Ps. 106.34, is only Vg., and the other 2x in Job 39.6 and Jer. 17.6 refer to the desert, not the sea). Closest parallel is en. Ps. 32. en. 2 s. 2.10, `quia ergo modo salsa maris aqua, quae remansit, in christianos saevire non audet, occultum autem murmur rodit in se, et intra mortalem pellem fremit conclusa salsugo, videte quid sequitur: “congregans sicut in utrem aquas maris.” [Ps. 32.7]' For the idea, cf. en. Ps. 64.9 and en. Ps. 76.20.

    genus humanum profunde curiosum [2] et procellose tumidum [1] et instabiliter fluvidum [3]: Cf. on 10.3.3, `curiosum genus ad cognoscendam vitam alienam', 3.3.6, `tumebam typho', and 13.14.15, `fluvidum'; two of the adjectives and all three adverbs are aptly maritime.

    dispensatores: 1 Cor. 4.1, `sic nos existimet homo ut ministros Christi et dispensatores mysteriorum dei' (see on 6.9.15); elsewhere of Paul at 13.22.32, of Moses at 12.30.41 and 12.27.37; of A. as bishop at 10.30.41; of Alypius as future bishop at 6.9.15.

    mystica: Cf. 13.21.30, `voces mysticas', and 6.4.6 (of Ambrose's exegesis), `remoto mystico velamento'. For A. the word regularly speaks of of texts or events that demand interpretation and are resolved only by a spiritual interpretation (e.g., en. Ps. 146.13, `scripturas mysticis quibusdam rebus salubriter tegentes intellegentiam'), but the link to cult activity in the word's pre-Christian usage is not broken (e.g., trin. 3.4.10, `prece mystica' [of eucharistic consecration] and trin. 15.26.46, `mystica et invisibili unctione' [of Jesus' receiving the spirit in his own baptism by John]). In script. only at Is. 3.3, speaking approvingly of one who is `prudens eloquii mystici'; in Christian Latin from Lactantius on.

    corporalibus sacramentis subditi: Of OT rather than NT times, of the reign of the littera: en. Ps. 143.2, `nostis multis sacramentis visibilibus et corporalibus oneratum esse populum primum: circumcisione, negotioso illo quodam sacerdotio, et templo figuris pleno, multiplicibus holocaustorum sacrificiorumque generibus'; sim. at c. Faust. 19.16.

    post initii verbum in consummationem respiceret: Heb. 6.1, `ideoque remittentes initii Christi verbum, in consummationem respiciamus' (text from Rom. inch. exp. 19, where this is taken as distinguishing between baptism and later good works; see also f. et op. 11.17, Io. ev. tr. 98.5: La Bonnardière REAug 3[1957], 137-162); Eph. 4.12, `ad consummationem sanctorum in opus ministerii'.

    text of 13.21.29


    ab aquarum amaritudine: 13.17.20, `qui congregavit amaricantes in societatem unam'.

    reptilia animarum vivarum et volatilia: Gn. 1.24.

    non enim intratur aliter: Jn. 3.5, `nisi quis renatus fuerit ex aqua et spiritu non intrabit in regnum caelorum' (text from from en. Ps. 78.17).

    magnalia: See on 13.20.26.

    signa et prodigia: 1 Cor. 1.22-23, `quoniam et Iudaei signa petunt et Graeci sapientiam quaerunt, (23) nos autem praedicamus Christum crucifixum, Iudaeis quidem scandalum, gentibus autem stultitiam'; Jn. 4.48, `nisi signa et prodigia videretis non credetis'. Cf. 10.35.55, `cum signa et prodigia flagitantur' ~ (against curiositas [2]); Io. ev. tr. 16.5, `vos nisi signa et prodigia videritis, non creditis. ergo si ita est, frangantur superbi rami, humilis inseratur oleaster' (against superbia [1] - for the third temptation, see below on `continere'). Acts has signa et prodigia in various cases 8x, but always in positive senses.

    et linguae in signo: 1 Cor. 14.22, `itaque linguae in signum sunt non fidelibus sed infidelibus, prophetia autem non infidelibus sed fidelibus.'

    produxerunt aquae: Gn. 1.20-22.

    quam fundasti super aquas: Ps. 135.6, `qui firmavit terram super aquas'; en. Ps. 135.8, `et quia in baptismo quem acceperunt inconcussa credulitate consistunt, ideo dictum est, “firmavit terram super aquas.”'

    immitte in eam verbum tuum: Ps. 147.15, `qui mittit verbum tuum terrae'; en. Ps. 147.22, `misit verbum suum, non deseruit etiam in eremo, pluit manna de caelo. qui emittit verbum suum terrae, et venit ad terras verbum eius.'

    et operentur animam vivam: Phil. 2.12-13, `cum metu et tremore vestram salutem operamini; (13) deus est enim qui operatur in vobis et velle [3] et operari pro bona voluntate.'

    operentur: Contrast 2 Cor. 7.10, `saeculi tristitia mortem operatur'.

    piscem . . . levatum de profundo: For `levantur pisces' of catching fish, cf. en. Ps. 49.9, s. 4.17.18. Editors cite Lk. 24.42-43, `at illi obtulerunt ei partem piscis assi et favum mellis (43) et sumens coram eis manducavit', but also suggest that the intent is eucharistic (e.g., Knauer 121n4, BA ad loc.). But in the Luke passage, it is Jesus (after the resurrection) who eats, and the purpose is to convince his disciples that he is really present in the flesh (as A. remarks clearly at s. 116.3.3). There is no question at any rate but that late in his career A. knew the equation12 piscis = Christus (civ. 18.23, `ichthys id est piscis, in quo nomine mystice intellegitur Christus, eo quod in huius mortalitatis abysso velut in aquarum profunditate vivus, hoc est sine peccato, esse potuerit'; Io. ev. tr. 123.2), but he makes little if any other mention of it, and so a priori argument here is out of place. The (correct) eucharistic reading of this line must depend first on the context here and the parallel passage at 13.23.34, `qua ille piscis exhibetur quem levatum de profundo terra pia comedit'; it gains from qu. hept. 7.49.14, `velut hamo piscem dominum Christum de profundo scripturarum levaret.' Cf. also Io. ev. tr. 17.11, `noli Iesum quaerere in turba, non est tamquam unus de turba: praevenit omnem turbam. prior ascendit de mari piscis ille magnus et in caelis sedet interpellans pro nobis.'

    mensa: Ps. 22.5, `parasti in conspectu meo mensam adversus eos qui tribulant me, impinguasti in oleo caput meum, et poculum tuum inebrians quam praeclarum est!' en. Ps. 22.5, `parasti in conspectu meo mensam, ut non iam lacte alar parvulus, sed maior cibum sumam, firmatus advserus eos qui tribulant me.'

    benedicuntur . . . de die in diem: Ps. 95.2, `cantate domino, benedicite nomen eius, bene nuntiate de die in diem salutare eius' (for `de die in diem' see on 4.8.13).

    continere: Suggesting the defeat of concupiscentia carnis by continentia; cf. Jas. 1.27, `religio munda et immaculata apud deum et patrem haec est: visitare pupillos et viduas in tribulatione eorum, immaculatum se custodire ab hoc saeculo.' The three temptations of 1 Jn. 2.16 are more explicitly disavowed in the next paragraph with a wider view of continentia.

    ut anima eorum tibi vivat: 2 Cor. 5.15, `ut et qui vivunt iam non sibi vivant, sed ei qui pro ipsis mortuus est et resurrexit.' en. Ps. 60.9, `non ut ipse habeat ex hac praedicatione commoda temporalia, sed ut prosit membris ipsius, id est fidelibus eius, cum veritate ministrando quod novit; ut qui vivit non iam sibi vivat, sed ei qui pro omnibus mortuus est.'

    mortua erat in deliciis vivens: 1 Tim. 5.6, `nam quae in deliciis est vivens, mortua est'; en. Ps. 9.14, `radix est enim omnium malorum cupiditas; et propterea porta mortis est; quia mortua est vidua quae in deliciis vivit. ad quas delicias per cupiditates tamquam per portas mortis pervenitur.'

    puri cordis: 2 Tim 2.22, `sectare vero iustitiam, fidem, caritatem, pacem cum his qui invocant dominum de corde puro.'

    text of 13.21.30


    Knauer 158: `Est ist ja ganz auffällig, dass Augustin etwa von 13,21,30 an nur noch vereinzelt, von 13,26,41 an überhaupt keine Psalmenverse mehr gebraucht, nachdem sie doch vorher auch im 13. Buche eine so wichtige Rolle gespielt hatten.' For the business of this last book is, finally, to expound at length and in detail an OT text. The characteristic Augustinian method for doing this is to set that text line by line side by side with NT texts. While Bks. 11, 12, and the first half of 13 had all postponed actual line-by-line exposition of the Gn. text, that effort really began with 13.15.16, and is now in full swing.

    Hence the proliferation of Pauline texts here, texts that do not themselves occasion much commentary. A. tried several times in the mid-390s to expound Paul, but found himself doing little more than paraphrase and so, having set forth his own main ideas in div. qu. Simp., left off the task permanently. It is surely significant that Paul looms here as so central a figure, when the role assigned him in Bks. 7-8 was crucial in the turning from Plotinus to the gospel. The absence of Paul (comparatively) from A.'s earlier writings, the contemporary wave of Paul commentary by others (and note esp. A.'s apparent dependence upon - and silence concerning - Ambrosiaster; that resonant silence), and the later significance of Paul in A.'s anti-Pelagian thought provide a context that can be read in different ways. Is Paul a discovery of c. 397, read back into the earlier years? Or was he conversely an important discovery of 386, left unaddressed until the encouragements provided by Simplicianus and his own elevation to the bishopric (Simplicianus would have known the history of A. and Paul from 386/7)?

    The content of the allegorical interpretation proposed reinforces the method. As Bks. 11 and 12 were about the distinction between God and mankind in the orders of father and son, so here the distinction in the world is not between spirit dwelling somewhere outside, but spirit-as-in-the-world, i.e., visible in the spiritales, and those in the world without the spirit, the carnales (see note at BA 14.629-634). This paragraph begins to depict that juxtaposition. (Our difficulty as readers lies in following two threads at once: that of Gn. 1, the text under exegesis, and that of A.'s allegorical reading - both threads often rendered hard to trace by the intertwining of the two.)

    ministri: 12.32.43 (of Moses), 10.26.37, `optimus minister tuus est, qui non magis intuetur hoc a te audire quod ipse voluerit, sed potius hoc velle quod a te audierit.' A.'s concern about just what constitutes a good minister is self-referential, placing him in succession from Moses through the apostles.

    ignorantia: ord. 1.3.8, `unde enim solet, inquam, oboriri admiratio aut quae huius vitii mater est nisi res insolita praeter manifestum causarum ordinem' (at retr. 1.3.2, he hesitates: `displicet mihi . . . quod admirationem vitium nuncupavi'). At 6.12.22, where `admiratio' leads to vice, at 10.8.15 it is unpleasant, and at 9.11.28 `admirans' is perfectly harmless.

    occultorum signorum: Neither the `unknown' signs that concern A. in doctr. chr. 2 nor the `ambiguous' signs that concern him in doctr. chr. 3, but ambiguous signs whose ambiguity veils some mystery.

    se abscondunt a facie tua: Gn. 3.8, `et cum audissent vocem domini dei deambulantis in paradiso ad auram post meridiem, abscondit se Adam et uxor eius a facie domini dei in medio ligni paradisi'; see on 2.6.14, `ille servus' (A. has played this role himself).

    forma [2] fidelibus: 1 Thess. 1.6-7, `et vos imitatores nostri facti est et domini, excipientes verbum in tribulatione multa cum gaudio spiritus sancti, (7) ita ut facti sitis forma omnibus credentibus in Macedonia et in Achaia.' For `forma', see on 12.3.3; see also on `conformari' below.

    imitationem: In Bks. 1-10, mimesis is usually error (e.g., 10.36.59, `ut te perversa et distorta via imitanti'; exceptions at 6.2.2, 8.5.10, 8.6.15, 9.7.15); now half a dozen positive examples occur (esp. here and in the next two paragraphs).

    non tantum . . . audiunt: Knauer 185n2 adduces the conclusion of the sermon on the mount, Mt. 7.24ff, `omnis ergo qui audit verba mea haec et facit ea similis est viro sapienti . . . (26) et omnis qui audit verba mea et non facit est similis est viro stulto'; s. dom. m. 1.1.1 wants to take these words as a guide for what to make of the whole sermon.

    quaerite . . . vestra: Ps. 68.33, `quaerite dominum et vivet anima vestra'; en. Ps. 68. s. 2.17, `ipse est enim panis vivus qui de caelo descendit. . . . quaeritis panem, ut vivat caro vestra; dominum quaerite, ut vivat anima vestra.'

    ut producat terra animam viventem: Gn. 1.24.

    nolite conformari huic saeculo: Rom. 12.2, `nolite conformari huic saeculo sed reformamini in novitate mentis vestrae'; cf. on 13.13.14. trin. 14.16.22, `qui vero commemorati convertuntur ad dominum ab ea deformitate qua per cupiditates saeculares conformabantur huic saeculo, reformantur ex illo, audientes apostolum dicentem “nolite . . . vestrae,” ut incipiat illa imago ab illo reformari a quo formata est.' Such `reformation' is what A. depicted himself experiencing in the Milan garden (see on 8.12.29-30).

    continete: `Continence' is the virtue that defeats all three temptations of 1 Jn. 2.16 (see on 10.30.41). For `continete', see on 13.21.29, `continere', quoting Jas. 1.27.

    evitando . . . moritur: Eliot, `Burnt Norton':

    This is the one way, and the other
    Is the same, not in movement
    But abstention from movement; while the world moves
    In appetency, on its metalled ways
    Of time past and time future.

    ab immani . . .: The parallels drawn here in schematic form:

    ab immani feritate superbiae --> bestiae --> fastus elationis [1]

    ab inerti voluptate luxuriae --> pecora --> delectatio libidinis [3]

    a fallaci nomine scientiae --> serpentes --> venenum curiositatis [2] Equating the three kinds of animal with the three temptations depends on the context here; elsewhere, A. has a slightly different triad (see on 5.3.4, quoting Ps. 8.8). The three given here appear together at Ps. 148.10 (see on 7.13.19).

    a fallaci nomine scientiae: 1 Tim. 6.20-21, `O Timothee, depositum custodi, devitans profanas vocum novitates et oppositiones falsi nominis scientiae, (21) quam quidam profitentes circa fidem aberraverunt.'

    ut sint bestiae mansuetae: Gn. 1.24-28.

    allegoria: s. 4.22.23, `omnis enim figurata et allegorica lectio vel locutio aliud videtur sonare carnaliter, aliud insinuare spiritaliter.' First here in conf., then only at 13.24.37, 13.25.38. See for summaries Mayer 1.358-9 and 2.463-464 and Mayer in Aug.-Lex. 1.233-239. The word does not appear in A. before Gn. c. man. 1.22.33 (also at Gn. c. man. 2.4.5, 2.10.13); then see vera rel. 50.99 (where he discusses at some length the `modus interpretandae allegoriae, quae per sapientiam dicta creditur in spiritu sancto'); only 83x in all A.'s works. He knows the term, but does not habitually use it to describe what we call `allegorical exegesis'. It clearly denotes for A. a type of `figurata locutio' (doctr. chr. 3.11.17), but is not always rigorously distinguished from aenigma.

    a fonte vitae: Jer. 2.13, `me dereliquerunt, fontem aquae vivae' (see on 3.8.16); for fons vitae in 13, see on 13.4.5 and cf. 13.16.19, 13.21.31.

    text of 13.21.31


    verbum: Jn. 1.1.

    fons vitae: See on 13.21.30. Cf. Jn. 4.14, `qui autem biberit ex aqua quam dabo ei non sitiet in aeternum, sed aqua quam dabo ei fiet in eo fons aquae salientis in vitam aeternam'; cf. Jn. 6.68, `verba vitae aeternae habes', and 1 Jn. 2.17, `qui autem facit voluntatem dei manet in aeternum'.

    et non praeterit: Mt. 24.35, `caelum et terra transibunt, verba vero mea non praeteribunt.'

    nolite conformari huic saeculo: Rom. 12.2, `nolite conformari huic saeculo' (see on 13.13.14).

    in verbo tuo: See on 13.20.27.

    imitatores Christi tui: 1 Cor. 11.1, `imitatores mei estote, sicut et ego Christi' (thus a program for the right kind of `imitation': see on 13.21.30).

    secundum genus: Gn. 1.21, `secundum genus'.

    aemulatio viri ab amico est: Eccles. 4.4 (VL), `quia aemulatio viri a sodali eius'.

    `estote', inquit, `sicut ego' : Gal. 4.12, `estote sicut ego, quia et ego sicut vos, fratres, obsecro vos.'

    in mansuetudine opera tua perfice: Sirach 3.19, `fili, in mansuetudine opera tua perfice, et super hominum gloriam diligeris.' en. Ps. 114.6, `mitis itaque et humilis, tamquam viam Christum sequens, debet esse animae actio tendentis ad requiem [cf. 13.38.53]; non tamen pigra et desidiosa; in cursum consummet, sicut scriptum est, “in mansuetudine opera tua perfice.” etenim ne mansuetudo ad segnitiem duceretur, adiunctum est: “opera tua perfice.” neque enim sicut in ista vita somni requies nos reparat ad actionem, sed actio bona perducit ad semper vigilantem quietem.'

    neque si non manducaverint: 1 Cor. 8.8, `esca autem nos non commendat deo, neque si manducaverimus abundabimus neque si non manducaverimus deficiemus.' The two conditionals appear both in the order implied here by A. and in reverse order in MSS of both Gk. NT and Vg; modern editors of both print in the reverse order.

    serpentes . . . astuti: Gn. 3.1, `sed et serpens erat callidior cunctis animantibus terrae quae fecerat dominus deus'; Mt. 10.16, `ecce ego mitto vos sicut oves in medio luporum: estote ergo astuti sicut serpentes et simplices sicut columbae.' en. Ps. 57.10, `quid est “astuti sicut serpentes”? offer omnia membra tua percutienti, dummodo caput integrum serves. caput viri, Christus. . . . et quomodo exuo, inquis, veterem hominem? imitare astutiam serpentis. quid enim facit serpens, ut exuat se veterem tunicam? coartat se per foramen angustum.'

    per ea . . . aeternitas: Rom. 1.20 (see on 7.9.14).

    progressu: See on 7.18.24.

    text of 13.22.32


    Reformation of the human being according to the image and likeness of God. N.B. that forma is the external fact of `shape' etc., imago is the internal co-relative in the mind: see 7.1.2 for clear distinction.

    cohibitae: Cf. esp. 13.4.5, `cohibens atque convertens ad formam', and 10.37.61, `a quibus rebus amorem cohibeamus'.

    ab amore saeculi: 1 Jn. 2.16 (see on 10.30.41).

    male vivendo: Luke 15.13 (the prodigal), `et ibi dissipavit substantiam suam vivendo luxuriose'.

    nolite conformari huic saeculo: Rom. 12.2, `nolite conformari huic saeculo, sed reformamini in novitate mentis vestrae, ad probandum vos quae sit voluntas [3] dei' (see on 13.13.14).

    et illud et illud C D G O Maur. Ver.:   illud S Knöll Skut.

    non iam secundum genus: Gn. 1.21, `secundum genus'.

    ad imaginem et similitudinem nostram: Gn. 1.26. For imago, see on 3.2.2; for similitudo, see on 7.10.16 (`regione dissimilitudinis'). Earlier echoes of this verse at 3.7.12, 6.3.4 (this verse was scandalous for A. when he accused Christianity of anthropomorphism), 7.7.11, 7.9.15 (with link to Rom. 1.20), and now frequent to the end of Bk. 13. The bibliography is large; in addition to references below, note especially J. Heijke, St. Augustine's Comments on "Imago Dei" (= Class. Folia: Supplement III; Worcester, Mass., 1960), listing passages outside trin. where the topic is discussed.

    The treatment here is brief and suggestive, and conceals complex doctrinal development, (1) regarding the nature of imago, and (2) regarding the connection between imago and similitudo. On (1), see H. Somers (on A.'s sources), REAug 7(1961), 105-125, and P. Hadot (comp. with Victorinus), Studia Patristica 6(1962), 409-442; on (2) see esp. R. A. Markus, REAug 10(1964), 125-143. The Latin tradition finds more in common between image and likeness than did the Greeks (partly for linguistic reasons: see Markus 126), and Marius Victorinus emphasized the importance of the preposition: God did not make Adam to be God's image, but rather ad (or iuxta) imaginem. But Victorinus still distinguishes imago (what the creature has now) from similitudo (what he will become) and so stands in a long patristic tradition going back to Irenaeus. A. was ignorant of that tradition for a long time and so relied on logic and the Latin language to see in the two words the possibility of identity. Furthermore, his reading of Paul in the 390s enabled A. to think that man is God's image (see Markus 135). The conceptual device that made this possible was the introduction of the question of aequalitas: Adam could be the image and likeness of God, but he was not equal to God (13.2.3, `quamvis non aequaliter') - only the Son of God was image, likeness, and equal (see on 7.9.14, `in forma patris' : div. qu. 74., `potest et similitudo et imago esse, quamvis non sit aequalitas, ut in speculo ostendimus,' and see the correction made on the earlier views of Gn. litt. imp. 16.55-60 at retr. 1.18 and inserted in the earlier text as Gn. litt. imp. 16.61-2). See also G. B. Ladner, The Idea of Reform (Cambridge, Mass., 1959), 185-203, P. Agaësse at BA 48.628-33, and A. Solignac at BA 48.622-628.

    dispensator: 1 Cor. 4.1, `sic nos existimet homo, quasi ministros Christi et dispensatores mysteriorum dei' (see on 13.20.28).

    dispensator ille dispensator ille C D G O Maur. Ver.:   ille dispensator S Knöll Skut.

    generans per evangelium filios: 1 Cor. 4.15-16, `in Christo enim Iesu per evangelium ego vos genui. (16) rogo ergo vos, imitatores mei estote, sicut et ego Christi' (see on 13.21.31); Gal. 4.19, `filioli mei, quos iterum parturio donec Christus formetur in vobis.' Though the latter verse offers a suggestion of Gn. 1.26, A. chooses here to echo the other, in which the metaphor emphasizes a masculine role (`generans') rather than feminine (`parturio'): en. Ps. 101. s. 1.8, `habet enim paternam auctoritatem, maternum affectum, sicut et Paulus et pater est et mater est, non per seipsum sed per evangelium.'

    parvulos: 1 Cor. 3.1 (see on 12.30.41, explicitly quoted at 13.13.14).

    parvulos . . . foveret: 1 Thess. 2.7, `factus sum parvulus in medio vestrum, tamquam nutrix fovens filios suos.' For the mothering imagery, see on 4.1.1, `sugens lac tuum'.

    reformamini: Rom. 12.2 (see on 13.21.30); cf. on 12.3.3 for forma.

    ad probandum vos: Rom. 12.2 with vos rare: only ep. 120.4.20 and civ. 10.6.

    bonum [1] et beneplacitum [2] et perfectum [3]: Cf. Mt. 17.5, `filius meus dilectus, in quo mihi bene complacui'. See also the repetition of the phrase by A. below, in a trinitarian context.

    conspiciens intellectum veritatem tuam: Rom. 1.20 (as at 13.21.31).

    ideoque pluraliter dicto: Gn. 1.26-27. Gn. litt. 3.19.29, `dixit deus “faciamus” . . . ad insinuandam scilicet, ut ita dicam, pluralitatem personarum propter patrem et filium et spiritum sanctum. quam tamen deitatis unitatem intellegendam statim admonet dicens, “et fecit deus . . .”'

    homo renovatur in agnitione dei: Col. 3.9-10, `qui exuistis vos veterem hominem cum actibus eius (10) et induistis novum, eum qui renovatur in agnitione secundum imaginem eius qui creavit eum.' See trin. 14.16.22 at length on this text and related ones; en. Ps. 83.1, `exuitur carnalium desideriorum integumentis, quasi vinaciis; hoc enim ei contigit in desideriis carnalibus, propter quae et apostolus dicit, “exuite vos veterem hominem, et induite novum.”' Reformation according to the image and likeness of God is therefore the fruit of continence, hence a new layer of meaning for the conversion narrative of 8.12.29-30.

    spiritalis effectus: 1 Cor. 2.15, quoted on `percepit quae sunt spiritus dei' on 13.23.33. (Many of these verses associated themselves naturally with each other for A., e.g., en. Ps. 103. s. 1.16 concatenates 1 Cor. 2.15, 1 Cor. 3.1 and 1 Cor. 4.1.)

    text of 13.23.33


    hoc est: This sharp juxtaposition of NT with OT text gives translators fits of periphrasis: clearest is Carena, `“Giudica tutte le cose” significa questo: “Che ha potere sui pesci . . .”'

    potestatem piscium: Gn. 1.26.

    percipit quae sunt spiritus dei: 1 Cor. 2.14-16, `animalis autem homo non percipit quae sunt spiritus dei, stultitia enim sunt illi et non potest intellegere quia spiritaliter examinantur. (15) spiritalis autem iudicat omnia, et ipse a nemine diiudicatur. (16) quis enim cognovit sensum domini qui instruat eum? nos autem sensum Christi habemus.'

    homo in honore positus: Ps. 48.13, `et homo cum in honore esset non intellexit. comparatus est iumentis insensatis et similis factus est illis'; en. Ps. 48. s. 1.16, `quid est, in honore positus? factus ad imaginem et similitudinem dei, homo praelatus iumentis. non enim fecit deus sic hominem, quomodo fecit iumentum; sed fecit deus hominem cui servirent iumenta; numquid eius viribus, et non intellectui?'

    ergo in ecclesia: The lengthy sentence filling the rest of this paragraph summarizes and expands to specify the meaning of `spiritalis iudicat' by a process of elimination; for the positive side, see 13.23.34. The structure is:

    spiritales . . . spiritaliter iudicant . . . non de cognitionibus spiritalibus . . . neque de ipso libro tuo . . . neque de illa distinctione . . . neque de turbidis huius saeculi populis . . . The existing editions make new sentences at `neque de turbidis' and `quid enim ei', obscuring the structure (probably out of fatigue).

    ecclesia: locus of the spirit, hence of the spiritales; cf. 13.12.13, `spiritales et carnales ecclesiae suae'.

    secundum gratiam tuam: 1 Cor. 3.10, `secundum gratiam dei, quae data est mihi ut sapiens architectus fundamentum posui.'

    tuum sumus figmentum: Eph. 2.10, `ipsius enim sumus figmentum creati in Christo Iesu in operibus bonis quae praeparavit deus ut in illis ambulemus.'

    masculum enim et feminam: Gn. 1.27. Here another NT-driven exegesis of the OT text is encapsulated in the middle of a long sentence; again the NT interpretation precedes (`qui praesunt . . . qui subduntur'), expounded in reverse by the OT (`masculus . . . femina').

    nec Iudaeus neque Graecus: Gal. 3.27-28, `quicumque enim in Christum baptizati estis Christum induistis. (28) non est Iudaeus neque Graecus, non est servus neque liber, non est masculus et femina, omnes enim vos unus estis in Christo Iesu.' But for the link in A.'s mind, cf. Col. 3.11, `ubi non est Graecus et Iudaeus, circumcisio et praeputium, barbarus, Scytha, servus, liber, sed omnia et in omnibus Christus,' following immediately on Col. 3.9-10 (see on 13.22.32).

    spiritales . . . spiritaliter iudicant: 1 Cor. 2.15, quoted on 13.23.33, `percepit quae sunt spiritus dei'.

    lucent in firmamento: Gn. 1.15, 1.17.

    renovatus in agnitione dei: Col. 3.9-10 (see on 13.22.32).

    factor tamen legis: Jas. 4.11, `si autem iudicas legem, non es factor legis sed iudex.'

    ex fructibus eorum: Mt. 7.20, `igitur ex fructibus eorum cognoscetis eos.'

    spiritalis homo iudicat: 1 Cor. 2.15 (as above).

    quid enim ei . . .: 1 Cor. 5.12-13, `quid enim mihi de his qui foris sunt iudicare? nonne de his qui intus sunt vos iudicatis? (13) nam eos qui foris sunt deus iudicabit.'

    text of 13.23.34


    It is arguable that the long sentence that filled most of 13.23.33 did not end there but is continued with `ideoque'; but in our text as paragraphed by modern editors, only six begin with a word to which is attached enclitic -que: and in five of those cases (besides here, 4.3.4, 10.41.66, 12.9.9, 13.27.42) the first word is ideoque (only exception: 9.10.24, `cumque'). Elsewhere ideoque regularly begins sentences (11/17x in Skut.). Many paragraphs begin with itaque, and A. may be treating ideoque as a similar `word'.

    Here, after a long string of paragraphs dense with scripture citation, suddenly the citations are superfluous: the allegorical taken so seriously becomes oddly literal - the schoolmaster returns to his bench. Hence, the first sentence here summarizes baldly, using the scriptural text as it might have been but was not, the doctrine of the last paragraph's endless sentence. We get in the end a fuller picture here of the activities of the bishop than the schematic portrait that cropped up at 6.3.3 and 11.2.2.

    quem fecisti ad imaginem tuam: Gn. 1.26.

    improbat: see below, `approbando . . . improbando'.

    in ea sollemnitate . . . quibus initiantur: i.e., baptism.

    sive in ea qua ille piscis exhibetur: i.e., eucharist: see on 13.21.29.

    sive in verborum signis: i.e., preaching and exegesis, drawing upon scripture (so below `sub firmamento' : firmamentum = librum tuum).

    interpretando: 5x in conf. in all, only here of scriptural exegesis (elsewhere of dreams [3.11.20], the `tolle, lege' voice [8.12.29], misreadings of conf. itself [9.12.33], and the intermediary position of sense between mind and matter [11.5.7]).

    exponendo: Always at least pedagogic (4.16.30, 5.5.9, 6.7.12, 6.11.18), but also of scripture exegesis (by Ambrose, at 5.14.24, 6.3.3, 6.5.8; of Gn. by A., at 12.25.35).

    disserendo: Of conversation that begins in disagreement (as at 3.12.21, 4.16.30, 5.6.11, 5.11.21, 6.3.3, 8.10.24, 10.12.19).

    disputando: Of conversation (or one-sided assertion) that continues in persistent disagreement and firm asseveration (e.g., 5.13.23, `et studiose audiebam disputantem in populo'); see also on 13.18.22, `disputas'.

    benedicendo: Only 3x before the garden (6.14.24, 7.18.24, 8.1.1), then 8.12.30 (`narramus [Monnicae] quemadmodum gestum sit: exultat et triumphat et benedicebat tibi'), 9.4.7, 10.2.2, 10.34.52, 10.36.59, 11.7.9, and now 15x from 13.18.22 to 13.34.49.

    atque invocando te: See on 1.1.1f.

    ut respondeat populus: Cf. Deut. 27.15, `et respondebit omnis populus et dicet, amen'; but surely the liturgical setting is meant to be invoked - all these activities of the bishop (A. constantly reverts to his own role in these pages without saying as much) leading to the assent of the congregation.

    multiplicentur volatilia super terram: Gn. 1.21-2.

    iudicat enim spiritalis: 1 Cor. 2.15 (as above, 13.22.32 - 13.23.33). Here A. resumes from `iudicat enim' above, to summarize (as `ideoque' above summarizes from previous paragraph). Here, of the supervision of good works by the clergy.

    in castitate . . .: 2 Cor. 6.4-7, `sed in omnibus exhibeamus nosmetipsos sicut dei ministros, in multa patientia in tribulationibus, in necessitatibus in angustiis, (5) in plagis in carceribus, in seditionibus in laboribus in vigiliis, in ieiuniis, (6) in castitate, in scientia, in longanimitate, in suavitate, in spiritu sancto, [3] in caritate non ficta, (7) in verbo veritatis, [2] in virtute dei.'

    text of 13.24.35


    What does it mean to command `increase and multiply'? Why direct this command to humankind? A. is never in a hurry to resolve such puzzles, for puzzlement is itself a sign of meaning and its resolution a source of great licit pleasure (cf. e.g., doctr. chr. 2.6.7, and see en. Ps. 103. s. 2.1 quoted below and en. Ps. 106.14). This particular command offended the Manichees: Secundinus found it evidence of the barbarity of mores among the Jews (ep. Sec. 3).

    This passage has been labeled `one of the most tortured pieces of reasoning to be found in the entire Confessions' (R. J. O'Connell, Saint Augustine's Confessions [Cambridge, Mass., 1969], 172), exciting the spirited and successful defense of C. P. Mayer, Augustiana 24(1974), 65ff, where he reads this passage as a discussion of `das Verhältnis des Menschen zu den Zeichen'.

    quid est hoc: Exod. 13.14 (see on 7.6.10).

    mysterium: Earlier only at 3.5.9 (on the characteristics of scripture), `rem . . . velatam mysteriis'; to follow at 13.25.38, 13.26.40; see Mayer 1.357-358, 2.457-458. A. used the word more frequently as time goes on, but only intermittently before conf.; in Christian senses close to sacramentum, used both of OT foreshadowings (div. qu. Simp. 2. pr., `prope omnia veterum librorum figuratiora sunt et mysteriorum velaminibus involuta') and NT doctrines. en. Ps. 103. s. 2.1, `commendaveramus autem caritati vestrae, qui adfuistis, totum istum psalmum figuratis mysteriis esse contextum. unde quod difficilius quaeritur solet dulcius inveniri.' So cf. 1 Cor. 4.1, `sic nos existimet homo quasi ministros Christi et dispensatores mysteriorum dei.'

    benedicis . . . terram: Gn. 1.28.

    ad imaginem tuam creasti: Gn. 1.26.

    benedixisses pisces et cetos: Gn. 1.22.

    et volatilia multiplicarentur: Gn. 1.11-12, 24-25.

    text of 13.24.36


    As often, reflection on exegesis itself becomes the substance of exegesis. Between 13.24.35 (on the difficulty of the passage) and before 13.24.37 (the actual exegesis), this paragraph is ambiguous and tantalizing. It asserts that the text can be interpreted allegorically, and that one allegorical meaning of the text is that it can itself be interpreted allegorically - `ita crescunt et multiplicantur fetus hominum,' a sentence that looks forward and backwards.

    lumen meum, veritas [2]: Sim. apostrophes to divine light at 12.10.10 and 13.6.7.

    unicuique quantum sapere dedisti: Rom. 12.3, `dico enim per gratiam quae data est mihi omnibus qui sunt inter vos, non altius sapere quam oportet sapere sed sapere ad sobrietatem, unicuique sicut deus divisit mensuram fidei'; 1 Cor. 3.5, `quid igitur est Apollo? quid vero Paulus? ministri per quos credidistis et unicuique sicut dominus dedit.'

    coram oculis: Ps. 78.10, `coram oculis'; Is. 49.16, `coram oculis meis semper'. Cf. 2.1.1, `et contabuit species mea et computrui coram oculis tuis', and `in conspectu tuo' et sim. (5.3.3 etc.).

    figurata: See on 13.20.27.

    simplex dilectio dei et proximi: Mt.22.39 (see on 12.26.36).

    fetus aquarum: The baptized.

    attende . . . legis: A rare apostrophe to the reader; cf. on 1.7.11, `licet probes'.

    in principio deus fecit caelum et terram: Gn. 1.1.

    multipliciter intellegitur: See on 12.20.29f.

    text of 13.24.37


    A.'s versatility here is that of a juggler keeping several balls in the air at one time. 13.24.35 outlined the problems with a literal interpretation; 13.24.36 shifted the focus to the mechanism of exegesis itself, which returns as the focus of the interpretation here at the end of the paragraph. The result is a first-order allegorical interpretation: `crescite et multiplicamini' applies to good works done in the church; but then a higher-order allegorical interpretation: it applies to the essential business of the church, giving body to the presence of the word of God: in the waters, through the multiplication of signs; in the children of this age, through the multiplication of interpretations.

    The commentators have little to say on this passage, for all that it is so central, and so difficult; TeSelle 204 shows the general incomprehension in few words: `When Augustine wrote the closing books of the Confessions in 400 or 401 he had forged his interpretation [T. means `literal interpretation'] only through the first five verses. The rest of the creation narrative was treated as an allegory of the earthly life of the people of God, much like that which he had worked out ten years earlier in the commentary written against the Manichaeans; and he even thought that there were textual indications that it should be interpreted figuratively (conf. 13.24.37).'

    si . . . cogitemus: Reprises the difficulty from 13.24.35.

    crescite et multiplicamini: Gn. 1.22, 1.28.

    si autem . . . tractemus: Reprises the hermeneutical argument from 13.24.36. The underlying assumption is that the text before him has the consistency of texture and thoughtfulness of construction that A. would impart to a text of his own authorship. In other words, if A. had been given Gn. to write, he would have written it the way he assumes Moses wrote it (see 12.26.36). When a text jars our scholarly expectations, we have a large arsenal of techniques to use to attempt to clarify it, to take away the surprise; A. has techniques of that sort (see doctr. chr. 2), but a smaller arsenal than we. In addition, he employs the allegorical interpretation as such a tool, and a favored one, which we are disinclined to use except when clearly compelled by the text itself.

    invenimus quidem: Concessive, anticipating those who would dismiss his reading. (The remainder of this elegant sentence is well analyzed by Pellegrino, Les Confessions 282-3.)

    in societate amaricantium populorum: 13.17.20, `quis congregavit amaricantes in societatem unam?'

    secundum praesentem vitam: 1 Tim. 4.8, `pietas . . . promissionem habens vitae praesentis et futurae'. en. Ps. 40.3, `erige ergo oculos in haec promissa christiana fide; non te deserit deus in terra, et aliquid promittit in caelo.'

    donis manifestatis ad utilitatem: 1 Cor. 12.7, `unicuique autem datur manifestatio spiritus ad utilitatem.'

    affectibus formatis ad temperantiam: un-Stoic, un-Platonic: see on 10.14.22.

    ut una res . . . non invenimus: Reprises part of 13.24.36 again, concerning the unity of things and signs and multiplicity of significations and interpretations.

    sic et fetibus humanis: 13.24.36, `ita crescunt et multiplicantur fetus hominum'.

    cuius ariditas: Cf. 13.17.21, `animas sitientes tibi'.

    text of 13.25.38


    quod . . . commonet: Divine speech precedes human (see on 1.1.1, and cf. 1.5.5, `miserere ut loquar').

    et dicam nec verebor: Cf. 13.24.36, `neque silebo'.

    tu sis veritas: Jn. 3.33, `verax'; Jn. 14.6, `veritas'; cf. 8.10.24, 13.29.44. See on 1.18.28.

    omnis autem homo mendax: Ps. 115.11(2), `ego autem dixi in ecstasi mea, omnis homo mendax'; Rom. 3.4. `est autem deus verax, omnis autem homo mendax.' en. Ps. 108.2, `deus enim verax, omnis autem homo mendax; quia non est homo verax, nisi in quo loquitur deus.' en. Ps. 115.3, `conterritus enim respexit infirmitatem suam, et vidit non de se sibi esse praesumendum. quantum enim ad ipsum hominem pertinet, mendax est; sed gratia dei verax effectus est, ne pressuris inimicorum cedens non loqueretur quod crediderat, sed negaret.' Other citations and discussions at en. Ps. 91.6, Io. ev. tr. 14.8, 39.7-8, ep. 238.1.8, Io. ep. tr. 1.6, s. 328.2.2 (Rev. Bén. 51[1939] 16).

    qui loquitur mendacium: Jn. 8.44, `qui loquitur mendacium, de suo loquitur, quia mendax est et pater eius' (see on 12.25.34).

    dedisti nobis in escam: Gn. 1.29-30.

    bestiis terrae atque serpentibus: As animae vivae: 13.21.29-31.

    dicebamus: At 13.17.21.

    talis terra: 2 Tim. 1.16, `det misericordiam dominus Onesiphori domui, quia saepe me refrigeravit et catenam meam non erubuit.' Paul remains the archetype and model of Christian ministry (as in the next century for Patrick in his own confessio), and as such he is in a sense A.'s idealized version of himself, what A. should be or become, everyman or everybishop, stripped of A.'s individuality and capacity for sinfulness. By filling these pages with Paul's image and words, A. presents the better side of himself, renewed in the image and likeness of the trinity. Thus in one sense Bk. 13 is the most personal and immediate of all conf., though to many readers it is just the opposite.

    Several of the texts also played an important part in another discussion of the role and function of the clergy in the Christian community, A.'s op. mon., written c. 400. There the issue was how far monks could depend on the generosity of others and how far they should work to support themselves. Whether there is any direct connection between that debate and the appearance of the same texts here (e.g., whether A. felt himself the object of criticism on such grounds) is veiled from us by the reticences of conf.

    qui quod . . . ex Macedonia: 2 Cor. 11.9-10, `et cum apud vos fuerim et egerem, nemini gravis fui. nam id quod deerat mihi adimpleverunt fratres qui venerunt a Macedonia, et in omnibus ingravate me in vobis custodivi, et custodiam. (10) est veritas Christi in me.'

    in prima mea defensione: 2 Tim. 4.16-17, `in prima mea defensione nemo mihi adfuit sed omnes me dereliquerunt. non illis reputetur. (17) dominus autem mihi astitit et confortavit me, ut per me praedicatio impleatur et audiant omnes gentes.'

    esca . . . debetur esca Ver.:   ista . . . debentur MSS Maur. Knöll Skut.
    Verheijen's best moment (he compares 13.26.40, `ista esca debetur').

    debetur (2) . . . debetur (3) . . . debetur (4): The singular appears in all cases in GOS Skut. Ver., with debentur in CD Maur. Knöll

    animae vivae [= viventi]: Always of the continent, in 13.21.29, 13.21.30, 13.21.31, 13.22.32, 13.23.34, 13.24.37.

    volatilibus . . . multiplicantur: Gn. 1.22.

    quoniam in omnem terram exiit sonus eorum: Ps. 18.5, `non sunt loquelae neque sermones quorum non audiantur voces eorum. in omnem terram exiit sonus eorum et in fines orbis terrae verba eorum' (see on 13.20.26).

    text of 13.26.39


    The biographical overtone grows stronger. A. had returned from Italy to Africa to seek out the lowest place and private devotion; even as presbyter he could for the most part conceal himself, despite some public appearances; the bishopric made that impossible, and made him the object of the importunate charitable generosity of his flock. He was susceptible, he claims (see on 10.36.59), to the temptations of taking too much pleasure in his new office, but at the same time, he did not want to discourage the good intentions of his flock. This passage resolves that dilemma: he must learn to accept those gifts as Paul did, not for himself, but for the benefit of the faithful who gave them. Cf. also 10.37.62, `ecce in te, veritas, video non me laudibus meis propter me, sed propter proximi utilitatem moveri oportere.'

    See at end of notes on this paragraph for A.'s text of Phil. 4.10-18, which underlies this paragraph and what follows.

    quorum deus venter: Phil. 3.19, `quorum deus venter est'; cf. c. Faust. 6.5, ep. 29.11, s. 51.14.24.

    qui deo serviebat non suo ventri: Rom. 16.18, `huiuscemodi enim Christo domino nostro non serviunt sed suo ventri, et per dulces sermones et benedictiones seducunt corda innocentium.' exp. prop. Rom. 76 (84) (of false teachers [quoting 1 Tim. 1.3-4, Tit. 1.10-12]), `ad hoc enim refertur quod et hic ait, “hi enim Christo domino non serviunt, sed suo ventri,” de quibus alio loco dicit, “quorum deus venter est.”' Also of false teachers at op. mon. 12.13, en. Ps. 115.1.

    congratulor ei valde: here probably in sense `congaudere': see Hensellek, Sitzungsber. Akad. Wien 376(1981), 8 (vera rel. 55.110, `neque enim et nos videndo angelum beati sumus, sed videndo veritatem, qua etiam ipsos diligimus angelos et his congratulamur').

    quae per Epaphroditum miserant: Phil. 4.18 (text below).

    gavisus sum: Phil. 4.10 (text below). Cf. 10.31.45, on the temptations of food and drink: the Phil. citation in both places links autobiography and allegory.

    non quod desit: Phil. 4.11-13 (text below). Linked to continence at b. con. 25, `multi quidem facilius se abstinent ut non utantur quam temperant ut bene utantur; nemo tamen potest sapienter uti, nisi qui potest et continenter non uti. ex hoc habitu et Paulus dicebat, “scio et abundare et penuriam pati.”' See further on 13.26.40.

    Text of Phil. 4.10-18

    (4.10) gavisus sum autem in domino vehementer quoniam tandem aliquando repullulastis pro me sentire, sicut et sentiebatis, taedium autem habuistis. (11) non quasi propter penuriam dico, ego enim didici in quibus sum sufficiens esse. (12) scio et minus habere, scio et abundare; in omnibus et in omni institutus sum et satiari et esurire et abundare et penuriam pati. (13) omnia possum in eo qui me confortat. (14) verum tamen bene fecistis communicantes tribulationi meae. (15) scitis enim etiam vos, Philippenses, quoniam in principio evangelii, cum ex Macedonia sum profectus, nulla mihi ecclesia communicavit in ratione dati et accepti nisi vos soli; (16) quia et Thessalonicam et semel et iterum usibus meis misistis. (17) non quia quaero datum, sed requiro fructum, qui abundet in rationem vestram. (18) accepi autem omnia et abundo; repletus sum acceptis ab Epaphrodito, quae misistis, odorem suavitatis, hostiam acceptam, placentem deo.

    text of 13.26.40


    Paule magne: The word-play on Lat. paulus (`small') is a little precious, and may have been encouraged by Paul's own self-depreciation (1 Cor. 15.9, quoted at 7.21.27, `minimum apostolorum tuorum').

    unde gaudes, unde pasceris: Repeating from 13.26.39; his joy is what nourishes him; cf. Rom. 16.18 in 13.26.39.

    homo renovate: Col. 3.9-10, `qui exuistis vos veterem hominem cum actibus eius (10) et induistis novum, eum qui renovatur in agnitionem secundum imaginem eius qui creavit eum' (see on 13.22.32)

    agnitione agnitione G O Ver.:   agnitionem C D S Maur. Knöll Skut.
    (cf. 13.22.32).

    tanta continentia: ablative of specification dependent on viva (see on 13.25.38).

    volatilis: The metaphor is elusive, but in conf. the word is almost always of birds (except 11.13.15, `volatilis'); cf. 13.20.26, which equates `volatilia volantia super terram' (Gn. 1.20) with `voces nuntiorum tuorum'.

    loquens mysteria: 1 Cor. 14.2, `qui enim loquitur lingua, non hominibus loquitur sed deo; nemo enim audit, spiritus autem loquitur mysteria.' (Text from Gn. litt. 12.8.19 [below]; Vg. has spiritu for spiritus in accord with Gk., but some MSS of both Gn. litt. and Vg. know this variant). Gn. litt. 12.8.19, `spiritus a mente distinguitur evidentissimo testimonio. “si enim oravero,” inquit, “lingua, spiritus meus orat; mens autem mea infructuosa est.” [1 Cor. 14.14] cum ergo lingua intellegatur hoc loco dicere obscuras et mysticas significationes, a quibus si intellectum mentis removeas nemo aedificatur audiendo quod non intellegit - unde etiam dicit, “qui enim loquitur lingua, . . . loquitur mysteria” - satis indicat eam se linguam hoc loco appellare, ubi sunt significationes velut imagines rerum ac similitudines, quae ut intellegantur indigent mentis obtutu. cum autem non intelleguntur, in spiritu eas dicit esse, non in mente.' Cf. Gn. litt. 12.19.41, `fideles mysteria loquentes'.

    animantibus: Warns: `“animantibus,” being the summary of “man, living soul, and bird,” must, of course, be translated as “animals” or “living beings” (yet only Vega [“a tales animales”] and Bernhart [“für solche Lebwesen”] have it right; Labriolle, Sizoo, BA, and Carena translate “souls”).' Pusey has `creatures', Ryan `living souls'.

    ista esca debetur: see on 13.25.38, `esca . . . debetur'.

    laetitia: Cf. 13.26.39, `gavisus'. Though the word is infrequent earlier in any good sense (e.g., 8.3.8, 10.28.39), see nevertheless 4.15.27, 5.13.23, 6.1.1, 8.2.4, 9.4.10, 9.7.16.

    verum tamen . . . meae: Phil. 4.14 (text above).

    in tribulatione: Ps. 4.2, `cum invocarem exaudivit me deus iustitiae, in tribulatione dilatasti mihi.' Surely not coincidence that Paul is given this Psalm-verse to pray here, when A. himself recited it in memorable circumstances in 9.4.8. Warns observes that en. Ps. 4.2 `interprets Ps. 4.2 through Rom. 5.3, 5 where Paul speaks about himself: despite his outer tribulations, he is full of the divine sprit within.' en. Ps. 4.2, `ab angustiis tristitiae, in latitudinem gaudiorum me duxisti. tribulatio enim et angustia in omnem animam hominis operantis malum. qui autem dicit, “gaudemus in tribulationibus . . . datus est nobis” [Rom. 5.3-5], non habet cordis angustias, quamvis extrinsecus a persequentibus ingerantur.'

    abundare . . . novit in te: Phil. 4.12 (text above).

    nulla mihi ecclesia: Phil. 4.15-16 (text above).

    text of 13.26.41


    usibus meis misistis: Phil. 4.16 (text above).

    non quia quaero datum: Phil. 4.17 (text above). s. dom. m. 2.1.3, `sicut dicit de oblatione quae fit in sanctos, “non quia quaero datum, sed requiro fructum”: id est, quod quaero datum vestrum, non hoc quaero, sed fructum vestrum. hoc enim indicio apparere poterat, quantum profecissent in deum cum id libenter facerent, quod non propter gaudium de muneribus sed propter communionem caritatis ab eis quaerebatur.' (s. dom. m. 2.1.1 deals with the same self-accusation - wanting to be worthy of praise, but fearing to take too much pleasure in the praise - that is treated in Bk. 10: the link of the two subjects in s. dom. m. confirms the links that are more implicit here between Bks. 10 and 13.)

    necessaria: `Necessities' at 11.2.2, 13.17.21, 13.25.38.

    adiutorium: 13.17.21, `in protectione adiutorii'.

    bona et recta voluntas [3].

    magister bonus: See on 13.19.24 (the term of address used by the rich young man in Mt. 19).

    qui susceperit prophetam: Mt. 10.41-42, `et qui suscipit prophetam in nomine prophetae mercedem prophetae accipiet; qui suscipit iustum in nomine iusti mercedem iusti accipiet; (42) et qui dederit calicem aquae frigidae uni ex his minimis tantum in nomine discipuli, amen dico vobis, non perdet mercedem suam' (text from en. Ps. 103. s. 3.10, except that there he reverses the order of propheta and iustus). Cf. also Prov. 25.25, `aqua frigida animae sitienti'. The nature of `prophecy' in this sense is clear from qu. hept. 2.17, `hic insinuatur nobis ea loqui prophetas dei quae audiunt ab eo, nihilque aliud esse prophetam dei nisi enuntiatorem verborum dei hominibus qui deum vel non possunt vel non merentur audire.'

    fructu pascitur: pascor occurs 5x from here to end of paragraph; Warns sees the necessary connection back to where this question was originally posed (13.26.39); the next paragraph (13.27.42) will draw the threads together in a statement of the resolution of the problems considered through these paragraphs. The scriptural situation: 3 Reg. 17.1-16: in time of drought, the Lord first commands crows to feed Elias, which they do; then he tells Elias to seek out the widow who will feed him; at first she resists because she has barely enough for a single scanty meal for herself and her son; but Elias urges her to obey the Lord and offer him food first, which she does, and the supply of grain and oil miraculously continues for her in spite of the drought. Thus the scripture text offers another precedent for feeding God's representative (prophet, apostole, bishop): en. Ps. 103. s. 3.11, `cum ergo quisque sanctum suscipit, non suscepto sed susceptori praestatur. numquid in illa fame non pascebatur Helias? nonne corvus afferebat panem et carnem, servo dei serviente creatura? missus est tamen pascendus ad viduam, non ut militi sed ut provinciali aliquid praestaretur.'

    text of 13.27.42


    homines idiotae atque infideles: 1 Cor. 14.22-23, `itaque linguae in signum sunt non fidelibus sed infidelibus, prophetia autem non infidelibus sed fidelibus. (23) si ergo conveniat universa ecclesia in unum et omnes linguis loquantur, intrent autem idiotae aut infideles, nonne dicent quod insanitis?' In Paul, i)diw=tai are probably neither `fideles' nor `infideles' but somewhere between (like the `Godfearers' of Aphrodisias), but the `atque' here raises the possibility that A. thinks the two groups identical; cf. 13.21.29, `et linguae in signo sunt non fidelibus sed infidelibus'. (Elsewhere, A. regularly uses the words of the apostles, as a sign of their limited capacities.)

    magnalia: Ps. 105.21, `qui fecit magnalia in Aegypto' (see on 13.20.26).

    credidimus credidimus C D G O Ver.:   credimus S Maur. Knöll Skut.
    The perfect reminds us of his discussion earlier in Bk. 13 and virtually = diximus.

    pertineat pertineat G Maur. Knöll Skut. Ver.:   pertineant C D O S

    pisces et ceti: Gn. 1.9-12.

    text of 13.28.43


    Pulchritudo: Though `beauty' is characteristic of the second person of the trinity (as at 4.13.20, 10.27.38, etc.), God the Father approves the goodness of created things for their `ordered [3] beauty [2]', in other words their full realization of the original creative intent. The speaker/reader is joined with God here, seeing the same thing and saying the same thing, brought together in praise (confessio) by the beauty of creation, foreshadowing the unanimous chorus of praise at 13.38.53.

    bona valde: Gn. 1.31. Gn. litt. 3.24.37, `non enim frustra est additum “valde”, quia et corporis membra, si etiam singula pulchra sunt, multo sunt tamen in universi corporis conpage omnia pulchriora; quia oculum, verbi gratia, placitum atque laudatum, tamen, si separatum a corpore videremus, non diceremus tam pulchrum quam in illa conexione membrorum, cum loco suo positus in universo corpore cerneretur.'

    septies: Gn. 1.4, 1.8 (not in Vg.; cf. app. to VL [Beuron]), 1.10, 1.12 (second time on day 3), 1.18, 1.21, 1.25; the present exceptional case (1.31) is the second occurrence for day 6.

    nam singula . . . bona et valde: Sim. at 7.12.18.

    ordinatissimo [3] conventu . . . pulchra [2]: For the simile of the body: Gn. c. man. 1.21.32, Gn. litt. 3.24.37 (quoted above); cf. b. vid. 6.9. Sim. at 4.11.17 and 4.13.20 (on the de pulchro et apto); cf. also div. qu. 41..

    text of 13.29.44


    attendi: See on 11.18.23. The two questions now posed resume the doctrine of Bk. 11 (time and creator) and Bk. 12 (truthfulness of scripture) in brief compass, drawing on those conclusions to aid the exegesis here.

    non inveni tempora: See 11.6.8, 11.7.9, 11.11.13-11.13.16.

    verax: See on 13.25.38.

    veritas: Jn. 14.6.

    tu es deus meus: Ps. 42.2, `tu es deus meus'; Ps. 142.10, `doce me . . . quia deus meus es tu.' Cf. 7.10.16, `o aeterna veritas [2] et vera caritas [3] et cara aeternitas [1], tu es deus meus.'

    in aure interiore in aure interiore G S Knöll Skut. Ver.:   in aure interiori C D:   in aurem interiorem O Knauer  Knauer 88n2
    Cf. 12.11.11 (2x), and cf. 12.11.12, 12.15.18; the parallel is compelling in favor of the reading adopted here.

    perrumpens meam surditatem et clamans: 10.27.38, `vocasti et clamasti et rupisti surditatem meam.'

    o homo . . .: The speech draws together the three last books. God addresses creature, first uniting God and Scripture in spite of the apparent disjunction between Word and words (the focus of Bk. 12); then uniting Spirit and Church (the Spirit among us), in spite of the apparent disjunction between Vision and visions, Speech and speeches. For quoting the ipsissima verba of God but avoiding scriptural language, see on 6.16.26.

    ego dico: s. Den. 17.1, `[Iesus Christus] loquitur cum evangelium recitatur'; cons. ev. 1.35.54, `itaque cum illi scripserunt quae ille ostendit et dixit, nequaquam dicendum est quod ipse non scripserit, quandoquidem membra eius id operta sunt quod dictante capite cognoverunt. quidquid enim ille de suis factis et dictis nos legere voluit, hoc scribendum illis tamquam suis manibus imperavit.'

    accedit accedit C D G S Knöll Skut.:   accidit O Ver.

    quae vos . . . dicitis: Alludes to the bishop's authority derived from the spirit. A.'s own words, though temporal in form and content, nevertheless participate in the timelessness of the creator/word/spirit, whose words they really are (once again, cf. 1.5.5, `miserere ut loquar').

    cum vos . . . non ego: The dramatic unison of 13.28.43 (God and man seeing and speaking together) is now nuanced to reintroduce a division (to be healed again before 13.38.53).

    text of 13.30.45


    audivi: A. hears God's speech from the last lines of 13.29.44.

    elinxi: biblical; TLL: `lingendo comedere.' Is. 49.23 (VL), `et vestigia pedum tuorum elingent' (attested only at A. ep. cath. 7.16); Baruch 6.19, `corda vero eorum dicunt elingere serpentes'; Num. 22.4 (VL, where Vg. has delebit).

    dulcedinis [3]: See on 1.20.31.

    quidam: Probably the Manichees (pace BA ad loc., thinking he may also have in mind anti-body neo-Platonists like Porphyry). Not only does he thus return to Manichee-bashing on the last pages (a habit, almost an obsession, he retained to the end of his life), but he also adds a nuance to the development since 13.28.43 about the unison of God and man. In 13.29.44, he says that the unison is marred by the disharmony imposed by human temporality in the face of divine eternity; here he further shows that this unison is marred not only by creatureliness but by sin as well: a specific group of people are identified to whom `omnia bona valde' is anathema.

    This paragraph also exemplifies a rhetorical strategy A. uses elsewhere: providing a counter-example by way of conclusion. That is, having completed a long exposition, he adds a counter-example by way of showing in brief compass the main principles of the longer exposition. See on 10.21.30.

    Here the summary continues with a summary of the literal purport of the Gn. text in 13.32.47, and of the allegorical purport in paragraph 13.34.49. As Warns observes, paragraphs 46-9 expound the Christian view in response to the Manichean, in chiastic order.

    displicent: Cf. 7.14.20, 7.16.22.

    sed iam fuisse alibi . . .: c. Faust. 6.8, `in ipsa structura mundi eosdem principes tenebrarum . . . per omnem contextionem a summis usque ad ima conligatos dicunt'. vera rel. 9.16, `duas animas esse in uno corpore existimant, unam de deo, quae naturaliter hoc sit quod ipse, alteram de gente tenebrarum, quam deus nec genuerit nec fecerit nec protulerit nec abiecerit; . . . sed quodam tempore adversus deum rebellasse [cf. `rebellare' here], deum autem qui aliud quod faceret non haberet et quomodo aliter posset hosti resistere non inveniret, necessitate oppressum misisse huc animam bonam et quandam particulam substantiae suae, cuius commixtione . . . hostem temperatum esse somniant, et mundum fabricatum.' Cf. nat. b. 47.

    compaginares: Occurs in biblical texts and once in Irenaeus; becomes common in A.'s day (Amm., Amb., Prud., Rufin., Ambstr., Jerome, Paul. Nol.); in A., en. Ps. 122.1, `unitas nos compaginat uni'; en. Ps. 131.13, `ille enim ad domum dei pertinet, qui est in caritate compaginatus lapidibus vivis'; and elsewhere.

    mundana moenia: Cf. Lucretius 1.73 (etc.), `flammantia moenia mundi' (sim. at Manil. 1.151, Ov. met. 2.401), but the context here is likelier Manichean than Epicurean (on the concrete nature of which see Bailey's Lucretius [Oxford, 1947], 2.612); to be sure, trin. 4 pr. 1 offers `praeposuit scire infirmitatem suam magis quam scire mundi moenia,' with Lucr. clearly in mind.

    devincti devincti S Knöll Skut.:   devicti C D G O Maur. Ver.
    The latter reading is assimilation to victis.

    alia vero nec fecisse te . . .: c. Faust. 6.8, `cum ex eis mundus construeretur, plerosque eorum in caelestibus fabricis conligatos, in quibus erant etiam feminae aliquae praegnantes: quae cum caelum rotari coepisset, eandem vertiginem ferre non valentes conceptus suos abortu excussisse, eosdemque abortivos fetus et masculos et feminas de caelo in terram cecidisse, vixisse, crevisse, concubuisse, genuisse. hinc esse dicunt originem carnium omnium, quae moventur in terra, in aqua, in aere.' Sim. at Io. ev. tr. 42.10 (a substantial exposition and refutation of Manichean doctrine of matter), mor. 2.15.37.

    quidquid radicibus terram tenet: en. Ps. 134.4, `invenio in creatura caelum bonum, solem bonum, lunam bonam, stellas bonas; terram bonam, quae gignuntur in terra et radicibus nixa sunt, bona; quae ambulant et moventur, bona; quae volitant in aere et natant in aquis, bona.'

    insani: Of Manichees at 5.8.14, 6.11.18, 7.14.20. Cf. civ. 11.22, `si autem manichaei non desiperent vel potius insanirent.'

    nec te cognoscunt in eis: Rom. 1.20 (see on 7.9.14).

    text of 13.31.46


    The summary of Bk. 13's exegesis of Gn. begins with a paragraph in which spiritus occurs 15x. Warns: `In the following exposition of the Christian vision of the creation, Augustine again takes up the Manichean points in chiastic order, dealing first with the general characteristics of the vision as such, before refuting the Manichean arguments.'

    qui autem . . . in eis: A return to the principle on the table since the beginning of 13.28.43; see on 13.30.45. This identification of divine and human vision/speech is not to be taken literally; it is rather the allegorical reading of Gn. 1.31, and is literally true only eschatologically. BA ad loc.: `évaluer les choses selon la norme divine, c'est-à-dire les atteindre dans leur vérité transcendante, c'est tout autre chose que de les évaluer selon les normes humaines, purement phénoménales, de l'utilité et de la jouissance.'

    propter te: 10.29.40, 10.36.59.

    quis enim scit hominum: 1 Cor. 2.11-12, `quis enim scit hominum quae sunt hominis nisi spiritus hominis qui in ipso est? sic et quae dei sunt nemo scit nisi spiritus dei. (12) nos autem non spiritum huius mundi accepimus, sed spiritum qui ex deo est ut sciamus quae a deo donata sunt nobis' (see on 10.3.3).

    quae dei sunt: Warns remarks that A. here identifies `quae dei sunt' with `quae a deo donata sunt' (en. Ps. 52.5, `omnia bona'; Io. ev. tr. 85.3, `quidquid boni est') and hence does not explain further.

    nos autem: The quotation marks here could have gone before `quis enim scit' two sentences before, because the quotation is consecutive. But the quotation marks reflect A.'s practice here, to postpone the rhetorical gesture of quotation to just this point.

    admoneor ut dicam [cf. `respondetur mihi' and `sicut enim recte dictum est' ]: These lines attribute responsibility for the statements that follow not to A. but to scripture/God. This is just what he `hears' and tries to say; 1.5.5, `miserere ut loquar'.

    dei sunt dei sunt C D G O Maur. Ver.:   dei S Knöll Skut.

    non vos estis, qui scitis: We are not who we think we are. Mt. 10.19-20, `cum autem tradent vos, nolite cogitare quomodo aut quid loquamini, dabitur enim vobis in illa hora quid loquamini. (20) non enim vos estis qui loquimini, sed spiritus patris vestri qui loquitur in vobis.' en. Ps. 115.4, `“omnis homo mendax” [Ps. 115.12(3)] . . . : ut paene mortuo corde reviviscant, nec in semetipsis fidentes sint sed in eo qui suscitat mortuos, et linguas infantium facit disertas, qui ait: “cum autem tradent vos . . . loquitur in vobis”: haec ergo omnia considerans ille qui dixerat: “ego dixi in pavore meo: omnis homo mendax.”' This is a `sharp formulation,' as Warns says, `that human speech is, in reality, performed not by man at all, but by the divine Spirit in man.' Cf. 13.29.44, where God says, `quod scriptura mea dicit, ego dico'.

    aliud . . . aliud . . . aliud: Three attitudes towards creation: (1) to disapprove created things and wish to use them for another end (Manichees); (2) to approve but want to enjoy them independent of God (secular philosophers and scientists: e.g., 5.3.3-5.4.7 and 7.9.14 and 8.1.2 for scientists in the first case and neo-Platonists in the latter two); (3) `creatura uti ad fruendum deum'.

    supra dicti: 13.30.45.

    quoniam caritas dei diffusa est: Rom. 5.5, `spes autem non confundit, quia caritas dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum qui datus est nobis.' This text aptly culminates Bk. 13, the book of the Spirit. Already at 4.4.7, 13.7.8 (of Gn. 1.2, `spiritus superferebatur', hence at the beginning of the exegesis dealing with the Spirit). See La Bonnardière, Aug. Mag. 2.657-665 with more or less complete list of passages: the verse is cited or echoed 200x by A., from mor. 1.13.23 to c. Iul. imp.

    est est: `he is “he is”.' Exod. 3.14, `ego sum qui sum', quoted at 7.10.16; it was finding the God in creation, the goodness of creation, that marked the decisive advance, between 7.10.16 and 7.17.23, to the fullness of intellectual vision. mag. 5.14, `“non erat in Christo ”est“ et ”non“, sed ”est“ in illo erat,” [2 Cor. 1.19] non opinor putandum est tres istas litteras, quas enuntiamus cum dicimus, “est”, fuisse in Christo, sed illud potius quod istis tribus litteris significatur. . . . intellegis igitur eum qui ait, “est in illo erat,” nihil aliud dixisse quam: “est appellatur quod in illo erat,” tamquam si dixisset, “virtus in illo erat.”' Closer parallel for the violence to the language at at en. Ps. 134.4, `est enim est, sicut bonorum bonum, bonum est' (discussed by E. Gilson, RA 2[1962], 205-6).

    text of 13.32.47


    The paragraph is framed by Gn. 1.31, and comprises a restatement of the literal sense of all of Gn. 1 (the whole text of which can be matched here line for line). There is no other palpable scriptural language in the paragraph (by contrast cf. 13.34.49, where the texture is unusually dense, even for A.). The motif from 13.28.43 of unison of divine and human vision and speech recurs now as A. speaks of his vision in the literal sense: n.b. present tense, `videmus'.

    gratias tibi, domine: Thanksgiving and confessio often linked: 1.20.31, 2.7.15, 8.1.1, 9.3.5, 9.7.16, 9.8.17, 9.11.28, 9.13.35, 10.3.4, 10.31.46, 11.4.6, 11.7.9; with echoes of Rom. 1.21 (see on 7.9.14): 5.3.5, 5.4.7, 7.9.14, 8.1.2.

    spiritalem corporalemque creaturam: Implies that caelum caeli is part of the `literal' reading of that passage. See on 13.12.13 for the beginning of what is in A.'s mind the strictly allegorical exegesis.

    firmamentum caeli: retr. 2.6.2, `et in libro tertio decimo [sc. confessionum] quod dixi “firmamentum factum inter spiritales aquas superiores et corporales inferiores”, non satis considerate dictum est; res autem in abdito est valde.' See Gn. litt. 2.4.7, where firmamentum = aer, `qui est inter vapores umidos, unde superius nubila conglobantur et maria subterfusa' (cf. also Gn. c. man. 1.11.17, Gn. litt. imp. 8.29, civ. 11.34).

    serenis etiam noctibus rorant: pervig. Ven. 20, `humor ille, quem serenis astra rorant noctibus'.

    per campos maris: Aen. 10.214, `campos salis aere secabant'.

    materiem materiem C D G Maur.:   mater O S Knöll Skut. Ver.

    fulgere desuper: lib. arb. 2.16.42, `intuere caelum et terram et mare et quaecumque in eis vel desuper fulgent vel deorsum repunt vel volunt vel natant.'

    consolari noctem: Gn. litt. 2.13.27, `factum est, ut . . . nox . . . illa non indecora remaneret, sed lunae ac siderum luce et ipsos consolaretur homines'; en. Ps. 146.9, `sunt stellae quaedam lumina in ecclesia consolantia noctem nostram'.

    quod subditur . . .: Gn. c. man. 2.11.15, `ut . . . virilis ratio subiugaret sibi animalem partem suam, per quod adiutorium imperaret corpori. ad huius rei exemplum femina facta est, quam rerum ordo subiugat viro; ut quod in duobus hominibus evidentius apparet, id est in masculo et femina, etiam in uno homine considerari possit: ut appetitum animae, per quem de membris corporis operamur, habeat mens interior tamquam virilis ratio subiugatum.' For fuller statement of the roles of man and woman in this vein, see trin. 12.3.3-12.4.4. The equivalences caro = female and spiritus = male (Eve, Adam) goes back to Philo, de opificio mundi 59.165, Origen, Gn. hom. 4.4, 5.2, Ex. hom. 13.5, etc., and Amb. paradiso 2.11; in A. at civ. 15.7, and esp. at trin. 12.12.17-12.13.20.

    subditur: 1 Pet. 3.1 (6x in all of A. [Warns]), `similiter mulieres subditae suis viris'; 1 Cor. 14.34 (3x), `mulieres . . . subditae esse sicut et lex dicit'; Eph. 5.22 (13x), `mulieres viris suis subditae sint sicut domino'; Col. 3.18 (12x) `mulieres subditae estote viris sicut oportet in domino'; Tit. 2.4-5 (1x: only in spec.) `adulescentulas (5) subditas suis viris'. b. vid. 6.8, `nupta fidelis et casta et secundum scripturas subdita viro'; ep. 262.1, `si maritum infidelem fidelis habuisses, agere te conversatione subdita oportuit, ut eum domino lucrareris, sicut apostoli monuerunt'; analogous is civ. 14.22, `de virtute contemplativa quae excellit et de activa quae subditur'. A. regularly substitutes servire for subdi when applying these passages to Monnica, substituting the more active for the more passive, at 1.11.17, 9.9.19, and 9.13.37 (also of M. with others than her husband: 5.9.17, 9.9.22); sim. at qu. hept. 1.153, `est etiam ordo naturalis in hominibus, ut serviant feminae viris'; ep. 262.1, `viro tuo mulier servire debuisti'. Sim. at vera rel. 26.49, 41.78, div. qu. 64.7, op. mon. 32.40, Io. ev. tr. 15.18-19.

    obtemperet: Gn. litt. 3.22.34, `[mentem hominis] fieri quasi masculum et feminam, illa parte consulente, hac obtemperante'; also at Gn. c. man. 1.19.30, 2.12.16, 2.19.29. For the relation of man/woman compared to mind/body, see cont. 9.23, civ. 15.7, both depending on Eph. 5.28, `viri debent diligere uxores suas ut corpora sua.'

    text of 13.33.48


    This praise of God in creation refutes the Manichean view in 13.30.45 (Warns).

    laudant . . . amemus: Praise and love unite: 4.12.18, 5.1.1, 7.13.19, 10.6.8. Prov. 31.31, `date ei de fructu manuum suarum et laudent eam in portis opera sua'; Dan. 3.57 (the prayer of the three young men in the furnace), `benedicite omnia opera domini domino, laudate et superexaltate eum in saecula'; Ps. 144.10, `confiteantur tibi domine omnia opera tua.' In its thinness of scriptural language with one citation at the beginning, this paragraph is like 13.32.47.

    ortum et occasum: Gn. c. man. 1.14.20.

    profectum et defectum, speciem et privationem: See Gn. litt. imp. 12.36, Gn. litt. 1.17.34, 2.14.28, 4.1.1. For species (see on 12.3.3) is the opposite of privatio, that is, of formlessness. Evil is then that defect in the creature, arising out of disordered will [3], that has as its effect a movement from greater formation to lesser [2] ending in an alienation from God the creator [1].

    mane et vesperam: A. has so far omitted discussion of `morning and evening' (the phrase now recurs several times from here to 13.36.51). Here it refutes Manichean doctrines of pre-existence. To A., creation has a history; things that happen in it matter. To Manichees, creation is entirely static and failed, and the only history is salvation history of a narrow sort (i.e., only some things/people are affected by history).

    de nihilo: See on 12.7.7, `de nihilo fecisti caelum et terram'.

    simul: See on 12.3.3 (on the logical but not temporal priority).

    materies [1] . . . species [2]. See Bk. 12 passim.

    intercapedine: `interruption'; with gen. of the thing interrupted (TLL: frequent if late, perhaps rather technical; cf. ep. 147.17.43, `nulla locorum spatia tenent, nulla intercapedine separantur').

    text of 13.34.49


    Parallels with 13.32.47: there literal (`videmus'), here allegorical (`inspeximus . . . propter . . . figurationem . . . et vidimus').

    ordine [3]: The vels are inclusive: the spirit moves in the world, the spirit moves in the text (both the text of scripture, and the text of conf.).

    in verbo tuo: = in principio (see on 13.20.27). Gn. litt. 4.23.40, `multum quippe interest inter cognitionem rei cuiusque in verbo dei et cognitionem eius in natura eius, ut illud merito ad diem pertineat, hoc ad vesperam' (cf. civ. 11.7 and 11.29). The expression videre in occurs once (13.31.46) with the third person of the trinity, but abundantly with the second (10.37.62, 12.24.33, 12.25.35, 12.26.36, 12.28.38, 13.4.5, 13.16.19). Cf. Gn. litt. 4.34.55, `in his ergo quae simul facta sunt, nemo videt quod prius posteriusve fieri debuerit nisi in illa sapientia [2] per quam facta sunt omnia per ordinem simul.'

    unico: qu. hept. 5.23, `“monogenes”, id est unigenitus, quod est unicus'; hence cf. 7.9.14, `unigenitus filius tuus coaeternus tibi'.

    terra terra ODonnell  scripsi :   terram MSS, edd.
    The phrase `caelum et terra' stands in apposition to `omnia', as does the exegetical `caput et corpus ecclesiae' that follows (see Col. 1.16-18 quoted below). Skut. (his ed., p. xxiii) defended the paradosis against a suggestion of Theiler (who would read `vidimus quia bona sunt . . . in verbo tuo . . . caelum et terra in capite corpus ecclesiae'), but the embarrassment of the translators here is palpable. Where they do not simply print inconsequential gibberish (as BA), they tend to act as if the text already showed the nominative (e.g., Pusey, Ryan).

    caput et corpus ecclesiae: Col. 1.16-18, `quia in ipso condita sunt universa in caelis et in terra. . . . omnia per ipsum et in ipso creata sunt. (17) et ipse est ante omnes, (18) et ipse est caput corporis ecclesiae, qui est principium, primogenitus ex mortuis'; 1 Cor. 12.27, `vos autem estis corpus Christi et membra.' (Cf. 6.4.5.) en. Ps. 36. s. 3.4, `corpus autem Christi, quod est ecclesia; tamquam unus quidam homo, primo iunior fuit, et ecce iam in fine saeculi est in senecta pingui'; sim. at en. Ps. 51.1, 58. s. 1.2, 62.2, 65.1, `caput ecclesiae Christus est, membra Christi ecclesia.'

    praedestinatione: Elsewhere in conf. cf. only 5.9.17, `faciebas ordine quo praedestinaveras esse faciendum'. BA ad loc.: `Ce text aide à comprendre la perspective dans laquelle Augustin se place pour envisager le mystère de la prédestination. Il se situe du point de vue de Dieu qui voit éternellement d'un seul regard le déroulement de l'histoire et l'ordonne infailliblement; mais non au point de vue de l'homme dans l'histoire, où tout est encore inachevé et imprécis.' Gn. litt. 4.32.49, `quae [cognoscenda] item priora sunt in verbo, per quod facta sunt omnia, quam in his quae facta sunt omnibus.'

    ut occulta manifestares: Ps. 50.8, `ecce enim veritatem dilexisti. incerta et occulta sapientiae tuae manifestasti mihi' (see on 10.1.1).

    super nos erant peccata nostra: Ez. 33.10, `iniquitates nostrae et peccata nostra super nos sunt et in ipsis nos tabescimus. quomodo ergo vivere poterimus?'

    et spiritus tuus bonus superferebatur: Gn. 1.2; Ps. 142.10, `spiritus tuus bonus deducet me in terram rectam' (see on 13.4.5). en. Ps. 142.18, `quia spiritus meus malus deduxit'. Note that in this scheme, the spirit intervenes at just the moment where sin has intruded.

    in tempore opportuno: Ps. 31.6, `pro hac orabit ad te omnis sanctus in tempore opportuno'; en. Ps. 31. en. 2.17, `quando manifestabitur novum testamentum, quando manifestabitur gratia Christi, quod est tempus opportunum.' Cf. Ps. 144.15, `oculi omnium in te sperant, et tu das escam illis in opportunitate' (see on 6.10.17).

    et iustificasti impios: Prov. 17.15, `qui iustificat impium et qui condemnat iustum abominabilis est uterque apud deum'; Rom. 4.5, `ei vero qui non operatur sed credit in eum qui iustificat impium, reputatur fides eius ad iustitiam.' (See on 10.2.2.)

    distinxisti: = formas dedisti (see on 12.3.3).

    auctoritatem libri tui: = firmamentum (13.15.16).

    qui tibi dociles essent: Cf. 1 Kgs. 3.9, `dabis ergo servo tuo cor docile ut populum tuum iudicare possit et discernere inter bonum et malum.'

    ei [sc. libro] ei G O Ver. Isnenghi  (noting `et inde . . . fulgentes' further on):   eis C D S Maur. Knöll Skut.

    congregasti: 13.17.20, `quis congregavit amaricantes in societatem unam?'

    infidelium: 2x in this paragraph to 5x for fidelis.

    ut apparerent: Gn. 1.10; cf. 13.17.21, 13.24.37.

    distribuentes: 1 Cor. 13.3, `et si distribuero omnem substantiam meam et si tradidero corpus meum ut ardeam, caritatem autem non habeam, nihil mihi prodest'; from the chapter of 1 Cor. devoted to caritas [3], this verse is quoted (e.g. en. Ps. 118. s. 21.8) with Rom. 5.5, `caritas dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum' (see on 13.31.46). Cf. Act. 4.31ff, `et repleti sunt omnes sancto spiritu et loquebantur verbum dei cum fiducia . . . (35) et ponebant ante pedes apostolorum; dividebatur autem singulis prout cuique opus erat.'

    accendisti: God the subject of the same verb at 8.4.9, 10.29.40, 13.14.15.

    luminaria in firmamento: Gn. 1.14-15; cf. 13.19.25. Phil. 2.15-16, `ut efficiamini sine querela et simplices, filii dei sine reprehensione, in medio generationis pravae et perversae, inter quos lucetis sicut luminaria in mundo, in ista natione tortuosa et perversa in quibus apparetis tamquam luminaria in mundo, (16) verbum vitae firmiter tenentes ad gloriam meam in die Christi.' Cf. 13.18.22, 13.19.25.

    verbum vitae habentes: Jn. 6.68, `[Petrus dicit] “domine, ad quem ibimus? verba vitae aeternae habes.”' Cf. 13.21.31.

    spiritalibus donis: 1 Cor. 12.7 (see on 13.18.23). It is these gifts that have demonstrated the high auctoritas of the saints - hence `praelata'.

    ad imbuendas infideles gentes: Cf. 13.20.26, `sacramenta tua . . . ad imbuendas gentes'.

    vocesque verborum: 13.20.26, `et voces nuntiorum tuorum'; cf. 13.21.29, 13.23.34, `sive in verborum signis vocibusque subiectis auctoritati libri tui'.

    produxisti: Cf. 13.21.29.

    ordinatos [3] . . . formasti [2].

    per affectus ordinatos: Also at 1.6.7, and cf. 13.9.10 (`minus ordinata inquieta sunt: ordinantur et quiescunt').

    continentiae: The virtue associated with the third person of the trinity, bestowed in Bk. 8 by the second person. Cf. Jas. 1.27 (see on 13.21.29).

    nullius auctoritatis . . . indigentem: i.e., non secundum genus: cf. 13.22.32, `homo demonstratore non indiget ut suum genus imitetur.'

    renovasti: Cf. 13.22.32, with Rom. 12.2 and Col. 3.10 quoted there.

    praestantique intellectui: See on 13.32.47, and cf. 13.23.33, `masculum enim et feminam fecisti hominem hoc modo in gratia tua spiritali.'

    omnibusque tuis ministeriis: Cf. 13.26.39f.

    ad usus temporales: Cf. 13.26.41, `numquid propter usus suos . . . ? non propterea.'

    bona sunt valde: Gn. 1.31. The verse brackets this paragraph (see end of 13.32.47); the development continues from 13.28.43.

    spiritum . . . dedisti nobis: The gift of the spirit, on Pentecost, that which supervenes on the morning after conversion [2], to facilitate life in this world moving towards the next (13.38.53).

    The allegory of Gn. A. presents may be better followed with the help of this conspectus. Note, however, that limitations of space and clarity make it impossible to do more than indicate for each section of A.'s exposition the text of Gn. on which it implicitly comments. The full text of Gn. 1 should be consulted.
    1.1, in principio fecit deus caelum et terram. inspeximus etiam propter quorum figurationem ista vel tali ordine fieri vel tali ordine scribi voluisti, et vidimus quia bona sunt singula et omnia bona valde, in verbo tuo, in unico tuo, caelum et terra, caput et corpus ecclesiae, in praedestinatione ante omnia tempora sine mane et vespera.
    1.2, terra autem invisibilis erat et incomposita.ubi autem coepisti praedestinata temporaliter exequi, ut occulta manifestares et incomposita nostra componeres
    1.2, et tenebrae super abyssum.(quoniam super nos erant peccata nostra et in profundum tenebrosum abieramus abs te,
    1.2, et spiritus dei superferebatur super spiritus tuus bonus superferebatur ad subveniendum nobis in tempore opportuno),
    1.4, et divisit deus inter lucem et iustificasti impios et distinxisti eos ab iniquis
    1.7, et fecit deus firmamentum et divisit deus inter aquam quae est super firmamentum et inter aquam quae est sub firmamento . . . 1.9 et dixit deus congregetur aqua quae sub caelo est in congregatione(m) una(m).et solidasti auctoritatem libri tui inter superiores, qui tibi dociles essent, et inferiores, qui ei subderentur, et congregasti societatem infidelium in unam conspirationem,
    1.10, et vocavit deus aridam terra et congregationem aquae vocavit mare. et vidit deus quia bonus est.ut apparerent studia fidelium, ut tibi opera misericordiae parerent, distribuentes etiam pauperibus terrenas facultates ad adquirenda caelestia.
    1.14, et dixit deus, fiant luminari in firmamento caeli ita ut luceant super inde accendisti quaedam luminaria in firmamento, verbum vitae habentes sanctos tuos et spiritalibus donis praelata sublimi auctoritate fulgentes;
    1.15, et sint in splendorem in firmamento caeli sic ut luceant super inde ad imbuendas infideles gentes sacramenta et miracula visibilia vocesque verborum secundum firmamentum libri tui, quibus etiam fideles benedicerentur, ex materia corporali produxisti;
    1.24, et dixit deus, eiciat terra animam vivam secundum genus quadrupedia et deinde fidelium animam vivam per affectus ordinatos continentiae vigore formasti,
    1.26, et dixit deus, faciamus hominem ad imaginem et similitudinem nostram.atque inde tibi soli mentem subditam et nullius auctoritatis humanae ad imitandum indigentem renovasti ad imaginem et similitudinem tuam,
    1.27, et fecit deus hominem ad imaginem dei; masculum et feminam fecit eos.praestantique intellectui rationabilem actionem tamquam viro feminam subdidisti,
    1.28, et benedixit eos deus dicens, crescite et multiplicamini, et replete terram et dominamini eius, et habete potestatem piscium maris et volatilium caeli et omnium pecorum terrae et omnium reptilium quae repunt super terram.omnibusque tuis ministeriis ad perficiendos fideles in hac vita necessariis ab eisdem fidelibus ad usus temporales fructuosa in futurum opera praeberi voluisti.
    1.31, et vidit deus omnia quae fecit et ecce bona valde.haec omnia videmus et bona sunt valde, quoniam tu ea vides in nobis, qui spiritum quo ea videremus et in eis te amaremus dedisti nobis.

    text of 13.35.50


    The shortest numbered chapter/paragraph in the work. There is no direct exegesis of the seventh day of creation, but that text (Gn. 2.2) is implicitly on the table from here to the end of the work.

    domine deus, pacem da nobis: Is. 26.12, `domine, dabis pacem nobis, omnia enim opera nostra operatus es nobis' (cf. 13.37.52); Num. 6.26, `convertat dominus vultum suum ad te et det tibi pacem'; 2 Thess. 3.16, `ipse autem dominus pacis det vobis pacem sempiternam in omni loco. dominus sit cum omnibus vobis.' The work began with a parallel prayer for understanding: 1.1.1, `da mihi domine scire et intellegere'; and with a more indirect prayer for just this peace: 1.5.5, `quis mihi dabit adquiescere in te?' The peace for which he now asks is the culmination of intellectus in absolute contuitus and repose; see G. Lawless, REAug 26(1980), 45-61. See on 13.38.53 for the reversal of forms here.

    pacem sabbati: On the sabbath in A., see G. Folliet, REAug 2(1956), 371-390; in numerous texts there discussed of the 390s, A. leans toward, and sometimes seems to embrace openly, a millennarian interpretation of the seventh day, with consequent emphasis on the eighth day of eternal repose. Folliet shows well that A.'s development retains as much as it abandons of his earliest views (Gn. c. man. 1.23.41 already speaks of the seventh day as a time when `requiescent cum Christo ab omnibus operibus suis. . . . post enim talia opera speranda est requies in die septimo qui vesperam non habet'), while abandoning the elements that would render him heterodox. The present passage marks clearly, at any rate, the abandonment of a millennarian scheme `et donne du sabbat une interprétation eschatologique très forte' (Folliet 385), and the eighth day is henceforward omitted in A.'s schemes of salvation history. (A. reviews what he comes to see as his own error and that of others at civ. 22.7 and 22.21; cf. haer. 8, on the Cerinthiani.)

    pacem sine vespera: civ. 22.30, `ibi [in sempiterna felicitate civitatis dei] perficietur “vacate et videte quoniam ego sum deus” [Ps. 45.11]; quod erit vere maximum sabbatum non habens vesperam, quod commendavit dominus in primis operibus mundi, ubi legitur, “et requievit deus die septimo . . . quae inchoavit deus facere.” dies enim septimus etiam nos ipsi erimus, quando eius fuerimus benedictione et sanctificatione pleni atque refecti.' Cf. s. Mai 94.4, `quid est enim quod et alibi per prophetam promittit “pacem super pacem” [Is. 57.19 (VL)] nisi quia et sabbatum . . . habet utique requiem, quae in hac terra sanctis promissa est, ubi eos nulla huius saeculi procella sollicitet, post opera bona requiescentes in deo suo?' (Folliet 377-8).

    ordo [3] pulcherrimus [2] . . . modis [1].

    text of 13.36.51


    The Manichees countered Gn. 2.2 with Jn. 5.17, `pater meus usque nunc operatur.' To which A. replied, c. Adim. 2, `dominus enim Iudaeorum refellit errorem, qui putabant sic requievisse deum die septimo ut ex illo prorsus nihil operaretur. requievit autem ab omnibus operibus suis quae fecit, ut iam ultra non faceret mundum cum omnibus quae in eo sunt, non tamen ut etiam a mundi administratione requiesceret.' Cf. 11.31.41.

    On these last three paragraphs, see Knauer 156-8.

    requievisti: civ. 11.8, `requies dei requiem significat eorum qui requiescunt in deo, sicut laetitia domus laetitiam significat eorum qui laetantur in domo, etiamsi non eos domus ipsa sed alia res aliqua laetos facit.'

    text of 13.37.52


    quemadmodum nunc operaris in nobis: See Gn. litt. 4.9.16, quoted on 13.38.53 below.

    semper operaris et semper requiescis: Cf. 1.4.4, `semper agens semper quietus' (the antitheses here generally reflect the thought of that invocational paragraph). Cf. Io. ev. tr. 17.14, `quis, inquam, fratres mei, explicet verbis quomodo deus et quietus operetur et operans quiescat?'

    text of 13.38.53


    A.'s other work of widest later readership, civ., ends with a similar evocation of the eternal sabbath: civ. 22.30, `post hanc tamquam in die septimo requiescet deus, cum eundem diem septimum, quod nos erimus, in se ipso deo faciet requiescere. . . . ibi vacabimus et videbimus, videbimus et amabimus, amabimus et laudabimus. ecce quod erit in fine sine fine. nam quis alius noster est finis nisi pervenire ad regnum, cuius nullus est finis?'

    For a similar theme, cf. Gn. litt. 4.9.16, `quid restat ut intellegamus, nisi forte creaturae rationali, in qua et hominem creavit, in se ipso requiem praebuisse post eius perfectionem per donum spiritus sancti, per quem diffunditur caritas in cordibus nostris, ut illuc feramur appetitu desiderii quo cum venerimus requiescamus, id est nihil amplius requiramus? sicut enim recte dicitur deus facere quidquid ipso in nobis operante fecerimus, ita recte deus dicitur requiescere cum eius munere [3] requiescimus.' So Gn. litt. 4.10.20, `recte quippe dicitur, sicut deus post opera sua bona requievit, ita et nos post opera nostra bona requieturos; sed ob hoc etiam recte flagitatur ut, quemadmodum disputatum est de operibus dei, quae ipsius esse satis adparet, ita de requie dei satis disseratur, quae proprie ipsius demonstratur.'

    quia sunt . . . sunt: The final change rung (since 13.28.43) on Gn. 1.31, exploring the differences in divine and human vision of creation - and vision of creation, of course, is the means of the ascent of the intellect to God. civ. 11.10, `quoniam deus non aliquid nesciens fecit, quod nec de quolibet homine artifice recte dici potest: porro si sciens fecit omnia, ea utique fecit quae noverat. ex quo occurrit animo quiddam mirum, sed tamen verum, quod iste mundus nobis notus esse non posset nisi esset; deo autem nisi notus esset, esse non posset.' The Platonic heritage of the notion is clearer in the earlier, more naive rendering at div. qu. 46.2, `sunt namque ideae principales formae quaedam, vel rationes rerum stabiles atque incommutabiles . . . quae in divina intellegentia continentur.'

    et nos . . . numquam cessasti bene facere: Bks. 1-9.

    et sunt quaedam bona opera . . . speramus: Bks. 11-13.

    ex munere quidem tuo: Probably = ex spiritu sancto (on munus = spiritus sanctus in A., see du Roy 321); elsewhere in conf. at 9.9.22, 10.31.45, and see on 10.4.5.

    bonum nullo indigens bono: Cf. Mt. 19.17, `quid me interrogas de bono? unus est bonus'; trin. 1.13.31, `id est: istam formam quam vides, quid interrogas de bono, et vocas me secundum quod vides magistrum bonum? haec forma filii hominis est; haec forma accepta est; haec forma apparebit in iudicio non tantum iustis sed et impiis, et huius formae visio non erit in bonum eis qui male agunt. est autem visio formae meae, in qua cum essem, non rapinam arbitratus sum esse aequalis deo, sed ut hanc acciperem me ipsum exinanivi.'

    tua quies tu ipse es: 4.11.16, `verbum ipsum clamat ut redeas [anima mea], et ibi est locus quietis imperturbabilis, ubi non deseritur amor, si ipse non deserata'; 1.4.4, `semper quietus'.

    et hoc intellegere quis hominum dabit homini: See on 13.35.50 for the reversals here on 1.1.1, `da mihi domine scire et intellegere', and, 1.5.5, `quis mihi dabit adquiescere in te?'

    angelus: Knauer 156n2, `sicher die Engel aus der Apokalypse, besonders 22,6 “et dominus deus spirituum prophetarum misit angelum suum ostendere servis suis, quae oportet fieri cito, . . . (8) cecidi, ut adorarem, ante pedes angeli, qui mihi haec ostendebat. et dicit mihi, vide ne feceris: conservus tuus sum . . . deum adora.”' The exact same subject was prominent in the opening of doctr. chr. 1 pr. 6, `et poterant utique omnia per angelum fieri, sed abiecta esset humana condicio, si per homines hominibus deus verbum suum ministrare nolle videretur.'

    a te petatur . . .: Mt. 7.7-8 (see on 1.1.1 et saep., esp. 12.1.1, `omnis enim qui petit accipit et quaerens inveniet et pulsanti aperietur'). N.B. the shift from subjunctive (hope, prayer, expectatio) to indicative future (faith, divinely granted speech [1.5.5, `miserere ut loquar' ], contuitus). Io. ev. tr. 14.7, `cui ad cor nondum pervenit dignus de tanta re intellectus, habet quo se convertat, habet quo pulset, habet a quo quaerat, habet a quo petat, habet a quo accipiat.' confessio and inquisitio end with questions still on the table, and the same assurance (from Mt. 7.7) that marked the opening of the work. What has changed between the first page and this?

    aperietur: aperietur S Knöll Skut. Ver.:   aperietur. amen G O C D Maur.
    To accept amen here requires for consistency that we accept the word at the end of Bks. 9 and 10 as well; but the manuscript evidence is strongly against that (esp. at 9.13.37), and the word is strictly speaking a response: the reader's first word after A.'s last.


    With a useful summary at 147-56 of the doctrinal content of the allegorical exegesis (147, `Le thème dominant du livre XIII est, sans conteste, l'action éminente du Saint-Esprit dans l'ème appelée à la vie divine'), and making the valuable observation at 144 that A. was in the habit of constructing works whose long development led up to a concentrated doctrinal synthesis: he instances mag., quant. an., mus., and (with less justification) trin.


    var. lect. faeni.


    var. lect. fructuosum.


    var. lect. faeni.


    var. lect. producat.


    var. lect. viventem.


    var. lect. suum.


    This is the conventional date, but n.b. that H. Rondet, Bull. litt. eccl. 61(1960), 274-6 placed this sermon tentatively to the early years of A.'s episcopate, i.e., virtually contemporary with conf.


    After quoting 1 Cor. 12.8-10 at Gn. litt. imp. 13.40.


    Evidence for A.'s Gk. text and against Verheijen; Rahlfs' LXX reads a)fxa/s twice in Gn. 1.16. Gn. c. man. 1.14.22, `in inchoationem noctis, pro eo dictum est ac si diceretur, in principatum diei et in principatum noctis.'


    Cf. A. himself up to Bk. 7.


    From the Greek acronym i)xqu/s, on whose history the classic work is F. J. Dölger, *I*X*Q*U*S (Münster, 1922).

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